This section is from the book "The Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation", by George Abbey. Also available from Amazon: The Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation.
The Yellow-hammer (Emberiza citrinella) is distinguished, like the common bunting, by the sharp conical bill, the edges of the upper mandible being rounded and turned inwards and by having a knob on the palate. Its average length is about 7 in. The colour is yellow above, varied by dark-brown patches, the underparts being pure yellow, and the wing feathers dusky black, with brown or yellow edges, the flanks being of a brownish hue. The nest is usually made on a hedgebank or near the roots of bushes, and is composed of grasses, moss, roots, etc., lined with hair.
The eggs are of a pale, purplish-white colour, marked with streaks and dots of reddish-brown and five in number. The yellow-hammer or yellow bunting, shows great attachment to the young, each parent taking turn upon the nest. The food is similar to that of the common bunting. It frequents hedges and fields, and in winter, along with other members of the Finch family, visits farmsteads.