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The Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation | by George Abbey



A practical manual of animal foes and friends for the country gentleman, the farmer, the forester, the gardener, and the sportsman

TitleThe Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation
AuthorGeorge Abbey
PublisherGeorge Routledge & Sons, Limited
Year1909
Copyright1909, George Routledge & Sons, Limited
AmazonThe Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation
The Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation

With 150 Diagrammatical Drawings

-Preface
The Small Holdings and Allotments Act, 1907, practically the first recognition by the legislature of the national right to use of the land for the benefit of the whole community, appears opportune for...
-Introduction
The total area (including water) of the United Kingdom is 77,498,955 acres. Over, on or in, this extent of land and water are found the wild or semi-wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians embra...
-Sporting
Sporting we may assume, was primarily originated by man to procure animal produce such as deer, wild boar and hare, among mammals; and among birds, the bustard, cock-of-the-wood, blackcock, grouse, pa...
-Fishing
Fishing like sporting, was no doubt first had recourse to as a food-supplying diversion, the exercise of brain and muscle being mind-invigorating as well as the catch body-sustaining. The angler, anxi...
-Forestry
The total area of woods and plantations in the United Kingdom is 3,069,375 acres, the trees, undergrowth and open spaces of which afford shelter and (to some extent) food for many wild and semi-wild l...
-Farming
Farming or the art of cultivating the soil in such a manner as to cause it to produce, in the open field, crops of such plants as are useful to man and to the domesticated animals, and including the b...
-Farming. Part 2
The feudal system introduced by the Normans, though beneficial in some respects as tending to ensure the personal security of individuals, operated powerfully against progress in agricultural improvem...
-Farming. Part 3
The outcome of the conflict between the combinations and confederacies of labourers sympathised with by John Wycliffe and his disciples - the poor priests, as distinguished from the beneficed and la...
-Farming. Part 4
Agriculture flourished under the encouragement of the ecclesiastics, they attaining to the greatest height of power 1216-1399, then entering upon their long decline 1399-1485, when ecclesiastical poli...
-Farming. Part 5
Agriculture received a great impetus to improvement during the wars caused by the French Revolution, 1795-1814, through the high price of agricultural produce, not only in England but also in Scotland...
-Farming. Part 6
The small holdings and small farms were slowly but surely depleted all over the country, either by the old landowners in the manner before mentioned, or by rich commercial persons purchasing estates a...
-Farming. Part 7
The power granted by Elizabeth was extended by an Act passed in the last year of George Ill's reign, which gave the churchwardens and overseers power to provide land for employment of the poor to an ...
-Gardening
Gardening During the time of the Roman occupation, through Saxon and Norman down to Magna Charta, horticulture appears to have been co-operative with agriculture, and to the total dismantling of the ...
-Part I. General Habits. Chapter I. Wild Animals. Insectivorous And Harmless. Cheiroptera, Bats
Cheiroptera, or Bats, an order of mammiferous quadrupeds, characterized by having the tegumentary membrane extended over the bones of the extremities in such a manner as to constitute wings capable of...
-Shrew-Mouse
The Shrews belong to the order Insectivora, and form the family Soricidae. They are known by their hairy bodies, and by having the feet formed for running, eyes well developed, ears present but usuall...
-Partly Useful And Partly Injurious Wild Animals. The Badger (Meles Taxus Or M. Vulgaris)
The Badger (Meles taxus or M. vulgaris), Fig. 4, belongs to the family Felidae, sub-family Mustelina or Weasels, and is about 2 ft. 3 in in length. It has a broad, white stripe from its forehead down ...
-Hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus)
Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), Fig. 5, is a native of most of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia, and recognised by having the body covered with spines instead of hairs. It belongs to the same fa...
-The Mole (Talpa Europaea Or T. Europaeus)
The Mole (Talpa europaea or T. europaeus), Fig. 6, is the type of the family Talpidae, which is included in the order Insectivora. The body is covered with thick glossy hair of furry consistence. The ...
-The Weasel (Mustela Vulgaris)
The Weasel (Mustela vulgaris), Fig. 7, a species of carnivorous mammals, belonging to the family Mustelidae, is characterized by an elongated body, about 10 in. long in the male and 8 or 9 in the fema...
-Destructive Wild Animals. Fox (Canis Vulpes Or Vulftes Vulgaris)
Fox (Canis vulpes or Vulftes vulgaris) Fig. 8. This (only wild representative of the Canidae left in the British Islands) is unquestionably an unmitigated pest and nuisance in the mountain districts o...
-The Marten. The Pine Marten. The Polecat
The Marten (Martes (Mustela) Sylvestris Or M. Foina) The Marten (Martes (Mustela) sylvestris or M. foina), Fig. 9, is included in the Mustelidae or Weasel family, the body being elongated and slender...
-Stoat Or Ermine (Mustela Erminea)
Stoat or Ermine (Mustela erminea), Fig. 11. This beautiful little animal is the Mus Ponticus of Pliny, and in habits very similar to the common weasel, hence, by some, considered to do as much good as...
-The Otter (Lutra Vulgaris)
The Otter (Lutra vulgaris), Fig. 12, is included in the family of the Mustelidae or Weasels, but is of aquatic tastes, for which the possession of webbed feet admirably adapts it. The body is of elong...
-Brown Rat (Mus Decumanus)
Brown Rat (Mus decumanus), Fig. 13, belongs to the family Muridae or Mouse kind of the order Rodentia or gnawing animals. The lower incisors are narrow-pointed and smooth, two incisors, two pre-molars...
-House Mouse (Mus Musculus)
House Mouse (Mus musculus), Fig. 14, is generally of a dusky brown colour, and its mouth, like the rat, is provided with organs adapted for the mastication of a mixed dietary, or one not confined sole...
-Water Vole (Arvicola Amphibia)
Water Vole (Arvicola amphibia), Fig. 17, commonly called Water Rat, and often confounded with the brown rat, which frequents the same localities, is a native of Britain, inhabiting the banks of stream...
-Field Vole (Arvicola Agrestis)
Field Vole (Arvicola agrestis), Fig. 18. This small animal, about 5 in. in length, is of a reddish-brown colour above and grey below, and found in woodland glades, grassy plantations, meadows (especia...
-Dormouse (Muscardinus Avellanarius)
Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius), Fig. 20, a member of the Rodentia and family Myoxidae, appears to be intermediate between the mice (Muridae) and the squirrels (Sciuridae), and there are three var...
-The Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris)
The Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), Fig. 21, belongs to the order Rodentia and family Sciuridae, and is arboreal in habits, typical of frolicsomeness and sport, the bushy tail assisting in its aerial fli...
-Chapter II. Insectivorous And Harmless Wild Birds Resident. The Kestrel Or Windhover (Falco Tinnunculus)
The Kestrel or Windhover (Falco tinnunculus), Fig. 22, belongs to the Falconidae. The colour is reddish brown to fawn, with black or bluish-black bars or spots on the back, and the breast of a lighter...
-The Barn Owl (Strix Flammed)
The Barn Owl (Strix flammed), Fig. 23, is included in the family Strigidae, which in itself represents the nocturnal section of the order of Raptores or birds of prey. Its length is about 14 in., with...
-The Common Creeper (Certhia Familiaris)
The Common Creeper (Certhia familiaris), Fig. 24 (left hand), belonging to the family Certhidae, or creeper kind, is remarkable for its long slender bill and claws, adapted for climbing trees, and cap...
-The Common Wren. The Golden-Crested Wren. Fire-Crested Wren
The Common Wren (Troglodytes vulgaris) The Common Wren (Troglodytes vulgaris), Fig. 25, is one of the smallest of our resident British birds, and averages about 4 in. in length. Of solitary habits, i...
-Titmouse (Parus)
The Long-Tailed Titmouse (Parus Caudatus Or Acredula Rosea) The Long-tailed Titmouse (Parus caudatus or Acredula rosea), Fig. 26, left-hand figure, is common in the south and south-western counties o...
-The Hedge Accentor Or Hedge-Sparrow (Accentor Modularis)
The Hedge Accentor or Hedge-Sparrow (Accentor modularis), Fig. 27, sometimes called the Hedge-warbler, belongs to the family of the Sylviadae, and is found over the British Islands. The length of the ...
-The Goldfinch (Carduelis Elegans)
The Goldfinch (Carduelis elegans), Fig. 28, included in the family Fringillidae or Finch kind, and sub-family Fringillinae, is the most esteemed of the hard-billed British birds, for the colour of its...
-Woodpeckers (Picus)
The Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picus Major) The Great Spotted Woodpecker (Picus major), Fig. 24, lower figure, belongs to the Scansores or Climbers and the family Picidae, sub-family Picinae, distingu...
-The Lapwing Or Peewit (Vanellus Cristatus Or Vulgaris)
The Lapwing or Peewit (Vanellus cristatus or vulgaris), Fig. 29, belongs to the Grallatores or Waders, and is included in the Pressi-rostral or compressed bills section of the order. The beak, crown o...
-Useful And Partly Injurious Wild Birds Resident. The Nuthatch (Sitta Casta Or Europaea)
The Nuthatch (Sitta casta or europaea), Fig. 24, upper figure, included in the Tenuirostres (slender billed) section of the order Insessors or Perchers, forms a sub-family Sittinae, of the Certhidae o...
-The Redbreast Or Robin Redbreast (Erythacus Rubecola)
The Redbreast or Robin Redbreast (Erythacus rubecola) belongs to the Dentirostral Insessors, and is included in the subfamily Erythacinae or Robins,a sub-division of Sylviadae, or Warblers. The red br...
-The Blue Titmouse. The Great Titmouse
The Blue Titmouse (Parus cceruleus) The Blue Titmouse (Parus cceruleus), Fig. 30, included in the Dentirostes section of insessorial birds and sub-family Parinae, is about 4 in. in length. The wings...
-The Meadow Pipit (Anthus Pratensis)
The Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis) belongs to the Dentirostral Perchers and is included in the sub-family of the Motacillinae or Wagtails. The bill is of moderate length, and slender with the tip of ...
-The Missel Or Mistletoe Thrush. The Song-Thrush, Throstle or Mavis
The Missel Or Mistletoe Thrush (Turdus Viscivorus) The Missel or Mistletoe Thrush (Turdus viscivorus) is the largest of the British resident Turdinae or true Thrushes, attaining a length of 11 in., a...
-The Blackbird (Turdus Merula)
The Blackbird (Turdus merula) belongs to the same family (Turdidae) as the missel and song-thrush, all included in the subfamily Turdinae, taking up its abode among plantations and copses near the hab...
-The Jay (Garrulus Glandarius)
The Jay (Garrulus glandarius), included in the Corvidae or Crows as a sub-family named Garrulinae, is of a light brown inclining to red colour, whilst the primary wing feathers are of a brilliant blue...
-The Magpie (Pica Caudata Or Rustica)
The Magpie (Pica caudata or rustica) belongs to the Conirostral or conical-beaked section of the perching birds, and is included in the family of the true crows (Corvinae). It averages about 18 in. ...
-The Rook (Corvus Frugilegus)
The Rook (Corvus frugilegus), Fig. 32, included in the sub-family of the Corvinae or true Crows of Conirostal Insessors, possesses its distinctive characters in the base of the bill being naked, as we...
-The Jackdaw (Corvus Monedula)
The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), included in the order In-sessores and family Corvinae or true Crows, is distinguished by its comparatively short black bill, white eyes, head and neck of a grey colour, ...
-The Starling (Sturnus Vulgaris)
The Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Fig. 33, belongs to the Insessorial birds of the Conirostral section and to the family Sturnidae. The general colour is a dark or blackish green, tinted with purple hu...
-The Grosbeak Or Hawfinch (Coccothraustes Vulgaris)
The Grosbeak or Hawfinch (Coccothraustes vulgaris), included in the family Fringillidae or Finches, is noted for its conical and strong beak, which is fitted for the destruction of hard kernels. It is...
-The Chaffinch (Fringilla Coelebs)
The Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), Fig. 34, a member, as the name implies, of the family Fringillidae or Finches, is 6 or 7 in. in length in the male, the female rather smaller and altogether duller a...
-The Common Linnet (Linota Cannabina)
The Common Linnet (Linota cannabina), a plain but melodious member of the Finch family, is about 5 in. in length, of a dark reddish-brown colour on the upper parts, and a dirty reddish-white beneath....
-The Greenfinch (Ligurinus Or Coccothraustes Chloris)
The Greenfinch (Ligurinus or Coccothraustes chloris) belongs to the sub-family Fringillinae, and frequents gardens, shrubberies, hedges, plantations and fields. The general colour of the male on the u...
-The Sparrow. The Tree-Sparrow
The Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) The Sparrow (Passer domesticus), Fig. 35, included in the Coni-rostral sub-family of the Fringillinae or true Finches, is well known as the Common or House-sparrow. Th...
-The Bunting (Emberiza Miliaris)
The Bunting (Emberiza miliaris) is included in the sub-family Emberizinae of the family Fringillidae or Finches, and its average length is 6 or 7 in. It is coloured dark brown above, each feather bein...
-The Yellow-Hammer (Emberiza Citrinella)
The Yellow-hammer (Emberiza citrinella) is distinguished, like the common bunting, by the sharp conical bill, the edges of the upper mandible being rounded and turned inwards and by having a knob on t...
-The Field or Skylark. The Woodlark
The Field or Skylark (Alauda arvensis) The Field or Skylark (Alauda arvensis), Fig. 36, is included in the family Fringillidae and forms, with other species, the subfamily Alaudinae, which is recogni...
-The Bullfinch (Pyrrhula Vulgaris Or Europaea)
The Bullfinch (Pyrrhula vulgaris or europaea), Fig. 37, belongs to the sub-family Pyrrhulinae of the family Frigillidae, and is noted for the beauty of its plumage and remarkable for the facility with...
-The Ringdove Or Cushat (Colum Ba Palumbus)
The Ringdove or Cushat (Colum ba palumbus), Fig. 112, belongs to the family Columbidae or Doves, and is the largest British species, and has a wide distribution in Britain and Europe. A black ringlet ...
-The Stockdove (Columba Oenas)
The Stockdove (Columba oenas), Fig, 112, is similar in its habits to the Ringdove, but more given to breeding in closer proximity in fir plantations, and feeds upon similar food, assembling in vast fl...
-The Rock Pigeon (Columba Livia)
The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) builds in the holes and crevices of rocks, its food consisting of grains, seeds, and vegetables, varied with a dietary of mollusca, such as snails, etc. ...
-Wild Birds Destructive To Game, Poultry And Pigeons. The Sparrow-Hawk (Accipiter Nisus)
The Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus), Fig. 38, a Raptorial bird and type of the sub-family Accipitrinae, is one of the commonest of British hawks. The male is about 12 in. in length, while the female is...
-The Hen Harrier (Circus Aeruginosus)
The Hen Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) included in the sub-family Circinae of Raptorial birds, is remarkable for the peculiar feathered disc round the eyes, somewhat resembling that of owls. It lives pr...
-The Gyrfalcon (Falco Gyrfalco)
The Gyrfalcon (Falco gyrfalco) feeding, chiefly on ptarmigans, hares, and water-fowl, has been shot in the British Islands. The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) chiefly inhabits wild districts, and...
-Owls
The Long-Eared Owl (Asio Asus Or Otus Vulgaris) The Long-eared Owl (Asio asus or Otus vulgaris), belonging to the Otinae or Owlets, possesses nearly complete feathered discs around the eyes, and two ...
-The Carrion Crow. The Hooded, Grey-backed or Royston Crow
The Carrion Crow (Corvus Corone) The Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) is very similar to the raven (Corvus corax) - which is practically extinct in Britain- in appearance and habits, though it is much sm...
-Aquatic Or Water Birds. Resident Insectivorous And Harmless. The Pied Wagtail (Motacilla Lugubris)
The Pied Wagtail (Motacilla lugubris), Fig. 40, a member of the sub-family Motacillinae of Dentirostral Insessors and included in the family Sylviadae or Warblers, is notable for its well-known habit ...
-The Dipper (Cinclus Aquaticus)
The Dipper (Cinclus aquaticus), included in a sub-family (Formi-carinae) of the thrushes (Turdidae), is about 7 in. in length, having a very short tail, rather small rounded wings, and large powerful ...
-Partly Useful And Partly Injurious Aquatic Or Water Birds. The Kingfisher (Alcedo Ispida)
The Kingfisher (Alcedo ispida), a member of the Fissirostral birds (Insessors), and type of the family Alcedinidae, is included in the sub-family Alcedininae. It is distinguished by the elongated stou...
-The Heron (Ardea Cinerea)
The Heron (Ardea cinerea), included in the family Ardeidae (Herons) and sub-family Ardeinae, is about 3 ft. 2 in. in length, the body being exceedingly small, weighing scarcely more than 3 lbs. It is...
-The Curlew (Numenius Arquata)
The Curlew (Numenius arquata), belonging to the Grallatores or Waders and family Limicolae, is characterized by the bill being wholly or partially covered with a soft sensitive skin, thus enabling the...
-The Water-Hen. The Coot
The Water-Hen (Galinula Chloropus) The Water-hen (Galinula chloropus), Fig. 41, right-hand figure, belongs to the family Rallidae or Rails, and sub-family Gallinulinae. It is rather common along the...
-The Little Grebe Or Dabchick. The Crested Grebe
The Little Grebe Or Dabchick (Podiceps Fluviatilis Or Minor) The Little Grebe or Dabchick (Podiceps fluviatilis or minor), Fig 41, left hand, included in the family Colymbidae or Divers and subfamily...
-The Common Gull. Black-Headed Gull
The Common Gull (Larus Canus) The Common Gull (Larus canus), Fig. 42, included in the family Laridae and sub-family Larinae or Gulls, is common on the coasts of the British Islands. It is distinguish...
-Chapter III. Migratory Birds. Insectivorous And Harmless. The Nightjar Or Goatsucker (Caprimulgus Europaeus)
The Nightjar or Goatsucker (Caprimulgus europaeus), Fig. 23, upper figure, included in the Fissirostral (Split-bill) section of the Insessores, family Caprimulgidae and sub-family Caprimulginae, gains...
-The Common Swift (Cypselus Apus)
The Common Swift (Cypselus apus) is generally included in the family of Insessorial birds. Hirundinidae or Swallows, of which it is made to form one of the sub-family Cypselinae, but by some naturalis...
-The Common Or Chimney Swallow (Hirundo Rustica)
The Common or Chimney Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Fig. 43, belongs to the family Hirundinidae of the Fissirostral (cleft-beaked) birds, and sub-family Hirundininae. Its throat and forehead is chestnut-...
-The House Martin. The Sand Martin
The House Martin (Chelidon Or Cotile Urbica) The House Martin (Chelidon or Cotile urbica) is of smaller size than the Common Swallow, which is rather more than 8 in., that of the former being about 5...
-The Grasshopper Warbler, The Sedge Warbler
The Grasshopper Warbler (Calamodyta Locustella) The Grasshopper Warbler (Calamodyta locustella), a member of the Dentirostral (tooth-billed) Insessores, family Lusinidae (nightingale kind) and sub-fa...
-The Nightingale (Daulias Or Luscinia Philomela)
The Nightingale (Daulias or Luscinia philomela), a celebrated song-bird, included in the Luscininae or Sylvinae (true warblers), is of a rusty brown colour on the upper parts tinged with olive, paler ...
-The Chiff Chaff (Phylloscopus Rufus Or Sylvia Rufa)
The Chiff Chaff (Phylloscopus rufus or Sylvia rufa) belongs to the Sylvinae or True Warblers, sometimes also called Luscininae. It is a small species, attaining a length of 4 or 5 in. Its colour is br...
-The Willow Warbler Or Willow Wren. The Common White-throat or Nettle Creeper. The Lesser White-Throat Or Brake Warbler
The Willow Warbler Or Willow Wren (Phylloscopus Or Sylvia Trochilus) The Willow Warbler or Willow Wren (Phylloscopus or Sylvia trochilus), Fig. 44, is olive-green above, throat and chest white, with ...
-The Wheat-Ear (Saxicola Oenanthe)
The Wheat-ear (Saxicola oenanthe) belongs to the family Erytha-cinae or Robins, and averages about 6 in. in length. Its colour is grey above, the quill feathers of the wings being tipped with black, ...
-The Whin-Chat (Pratincola Rubetra)
The Whin-chat (Pratincola rubetra), included in the family Erythacinae or Robins, is closely allied to the Stone-chat (Pratincola or Saxicola rubicola), and, like it, prefers the neighbourhood of furz...
-The Redstart (Ruticilla Phoenicura)
The Redstart (Ruticilla phoenicura) derives its name from the red colour of the tail, and from the jerking motion which it exhibits when changing position. It is of the Robin family. The male has the ...
-The Grey Wagtail. The Yellow Wagtail. The White Wagtail
The Grey Wagtail (Motacilla Melanope) The Grey Wagtail (Motacilla melanope) is not such an abundant species as the Pied Wagtail, and is found chiefly in the hilly and mountainous districts of England...
-The Tree Pipit Or Titlark (Anthus Trivialis Or Arboreus)
The Tree Pipit or Titlark (Anthus trivialis or arboreus), Fig. 45, belongs to the Dentirostral Perchers and is included in the subfamily of the Motacillinae or Wagtails, which it closely resembles in ...
-The Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa Grisola Or Atricapilla)
The Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa grisola or atricapilla), Fig. 46, belongs to the family Muscicapidae (Flycatcher kind) and sub-family Muscicapinae, arrives in England during May, rarely in April, an...
-The Red-Backed Shrike. The Great Grey Shrike
The Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius Cullurio Or Collaris) The Red-backed Shrike (Lanius cullurio or collaris), a Dentiros-tral Insessorial bird of the family Lanidae (Butcher birds) and subfamily Laninae, ...
-The Siskin (Chrysomitris Or Fringilla Spinus)
The Siskin (Chrysomitris or Fringilla spinus), included in the Fringillidae or Finches, is hardly to be considered more than a migratory bird, as for the most part the Siskin fly to Norway and Sweden ...
-The Redpole (Linota Linaria Or Rufescens)
The Redpole (Linota linaria or rufescens), included in the subfamily of the Fringillinae or True Finches, visits this country in September, and remains to pass the winter, leaving for the north of Eur...
-The Wryneck (Yunx Torquilla)
The Wryneck (Yunx torquilla), allied to the Pieidae or Woodpeckers, is characterized by its short, straight, and sharp-pointed bill, nostrils partly hidden by a membrane, pointed wings, tail rounded, ...
-The Cuckoo (Cuculus Canorns)
The Cuckoo (Cuculus canorns), Fig. 47, belongs to the family Cuculidae (Cuckoo kind) and sub-family Cuculinae. It is characterized by a bill of moderate size, short tarsi, and tail composed of ten fea...
-The Common Sandpiper (Tringoides Or Tringa Hypoleuca)
The Common Sandpiper (Tringoides or Tringa hypoleuca), sometimes called the Summer Snipe, included in the family Scolo-pacidae or Snipes and sub-family Tringinae or Totaninae, is about 7 in. in lengt...
-The Woodcock (Scolopax Rusticola)
The Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), Fig. 121,belonging to the subfamily of Scolopacinae or Snipes, is about 14 in. long, and weighs from 13 to 15 oz. It is of a brown colour of various shades, darkest ...
-The Snipe. The Great Snipe
The Snipe (Gallinago Coelestis) The Snipe (Gallinago coelestis), included in the sub-family Scolopacinae, is to some extent migratory, being found in Britain chiefly in winter. It inhabits marshy dis...
-The Ruff (Philomachas Pugnax)
The Ruff (Philomachas pugnax) belongs to the sub-family Tringinae or Sandpipers, and is noted for the setting of neck feathers in the male, specially developed at the breeding season. This, called ...
-Partly Useful And Partly Injurious Migratory Birds. The Hobby (Falco Or Hypotriorchis Subbuteo)
The Hobby (Falco or Hypotriorchis subbuteo), a member of the Falconidae (or Acciptrinae), is a summer visitant to this country, arriving in April. It haunts the cultivated parts of England, and its fa...
-The Short-Eared Owl (Otus Or Strix Brachyotus)
The Short-eared Owl (Otus or Strix brachyotus), Fig. 48, belongs to the family Strigidae and sub-family Otinae or Owlets, and is more or less migratory in habits, though occasionally remaining in this...
-The Blackcap Warbler (Sylvia Or Curruca Atricapilla)
The Blackcap Warbler (Sylvia or Curruca atricapilla), Fig. 49, a member of the family Sylvinae or True Warblers, is nearly 6 in. long, and has the upper part of the head black, the hind part of the ne...
-The Garden Warbler (Sylvia Hortensis Or Salicaria)
The Garden Warbler (Sylvia hortensis or salicaria), included in the family Sylviadae or Warblers, is 6 in. in length, and its colour brown above, abdomen white, and throat patch of white, brown tinted...
-The Fieldfare (Turdus Pilaris)
The Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris), included in the Turdidae or Thrushes, is a stout bird and rather elegant with its long tail and wings. Its length is between 10 and 11 inches and its weight about 4 oz....
-The Redwing (Turdus Iliacus)
The Redwing (Turdus iliacus) included in the Turdinae or True Thrushes, closely resembles the common thrush in its plumage, but is distinguished by the bright red colour of the underwing coverts. It v...
-The Turtle-Dove (Turtur Auritus Or Communis)
The Turtle-dove (Turtur auritus or communis), Fig. 122, a member of the Columbidae or Pigeons, is about 11 in. long, and possesses four rows of black feathers, tipped with white along the sides of the...
-The Corn-Crake Or Landrail (Crex Pratensis)
The Corn-crake or Landrail (Crex pratensis), Fig. 50, a member of the order Grallae or Waders, and of the family Rallidae, or Rails, is of a reddish-brown colour. It is a regular visitant to Britain i...
-Destructive Migratory Birds. The Crossbill (Loxia Curvirostra)
The Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) belongs to the family Frin-gillinae and sub-family Loxinae (Crossbills). It is found chiefly in the northern countries of Europe and occasionally visits Great Britain...
-The Common Tern Or Sea-Swallow (Sterna Hirundo)
The Common Tern or Sea-swallow (Sterna hirundo), Fig. 51, is a member of the Natatorial or Swimming Birds of the Laridae or Gull family and sub-family Sterninae, arriving on British shores in May and ...
-Chapter IV. Reptiles. Harmless. The Common Lizard (Lacerta Or Zootoca Vivipara)
The Common Lizard (Lacerta or Zootoca vivipara), Fig. 52, belongs to the family Lacertidae of True Lizards, in which the body is covered with scales, which are largest on the abdomen and the head. The...
-The Sand Lizard (Lacerta Agilis)
The Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis) is considerably larger than the common lizard, as it sometimes measures a foot in length. It frequents sandy heaths, and in the sand its eggs, fourteen or fifteen in n...
-Blind-Worm Or Slow-Worm (Anguis Fragilis)
Blind-worm or Slow-worm (Anguis fragilis), Fig. 53, belongs to the skink family (Scincida), and forms a connecting link between the lizards and the snakes. Though snake-like in form and having no appe...
-The Common Ringed Or Grass Snake (Tropidonotus Or Coluber Natrix)
The Common Ringed or Grass Snake (Tropidonotus or Coluber natrix) (Fig. 54) belongs to the sub-order Colubrina of the order Ophidia (serpents), the species name meaning Water Snake, and is characteriz...
-The Common Frog (Rana Temporaria)
The Common Frog (Rana temporaria), Fig. 55, is the type of the order Anurous Amphibia or Batrachians, and belongs to the family Ranidae (frogs). It is characterized by having the skin smooth, the hind...
-The Common Toad (Bufo Vulgaris)
The Common Toad (Bufo vulgaris), Fig. 56, belongs to the order Anoura of amphibian Vertebrata and family Bufonidae, which is distinguished by the toes of the hind feet being slightly webbed, but not s...
-The Smooth Newt. The Great Water-Newt
The Smooth Newt Or Eft (Triton Taeniatus Or Aquaticus) The Smooth Newt or Eft (Triton taeniatus or aquaticus) is included in the order Urodela (tailed) of Amphibians, and in common with all other m...
-Dangerous Reptiles. The Common Viper Or Adder (Pelias Berus)
The Common Viper or Adder (Pelias berus), Fig. 58, belongs to the order Ophidia of the class Reptilia, and to the section Viperina, family Viperidae or Vipers. The upper maxillae bear two canali-culat...
-Chapter V. Game
The term game applies to certain wild animals and birds pursued for sport, and the killing or even pursuit of them regulated by the Game Laws. But in a popular sense many wild animals and birds are re...
-Large Game. The Stag Or Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus)
The Stag or Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Fig. 59, belongs to the order Ruminantia, or ruminating animals, and is included in the family Cervidae. The adults, male and female, in the summer have the back...
-The Fallow Deer (Cervus Dama Or Dama Vulgaris)
The Fallow Deer (Cervus dama or Dama vulgaris), Fig. 60, is about 3 ft. high at the shoulder, and is easily distinguished from the stag by its spotted coat, longer tail, and palmated horns. In summer ...
-The Roebuck Or Roe-Deer (Capreolus Caprcea Or Cervus Capreolus)
The Roebuck or Roe-deer (Capreolus caprcea or Cervus capreolus), Fig. 61, once common throughout Britain, is now restricted to the northern half of Scotland. It is smaller than the fallow-deer, being ...
-Ground Game
This term applies to hares and rabbits, both belonging to the order Rodentia, or gnawing animals, and included in the family Leporidae (hare kind), which is distinguished by its members possessing two...
-The Common Hare (Lepus Timidus)
The Common Hare (Lepus timidus), Fig. 62, is tawny red on the back and sides, and white on the belly. The ears are very long and tipped with black; the eyes are very large and prominent. The length of...
-The Mountain Or Blue Hare (Lepus Variabilis)
The Mountain or Blue Hare (Lepus variabilis), Fig. 63, is distinguished from the common hare by its shorter ears, notched upper grinder, smaller size, less speed, changing its colour to white in winte...
-The Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
The Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus), Fig. 64, is not a native of Britain but was introduced into this country from Spain. It differs from the hare by its generally smaller size, by its shorter ears, of unifo...
-Winged Game. The Common Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus)
The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Fig. 65, belongs to the Rasorial or Gallinaceous Birds, forming the type of the family Phasianidae (pheasants), which is distinguished by the moderate size a...
-The Common Partridge (Perdix Cinerea)
The Common Partridge (Perdix cinerea), Fig. 66, is a Rasorial bird, forming the type of the sub-family Perdicinae, which in turn forms a division of the main family of the Tetraonidiae or grouse. The ...
-The Red-Legged Partridge (Perdix Rubra)
The Red-legged Partridge (Perdix rubra) is common in some parts of England, especially in Norfolk and neighbouring counties, having been introduced into Suffolk by the Marquis of Hertford and Lord Ren...
-The Common Quail (Coturnix Dactylisonans)
The Common Quail (Coturnix dactylisonans), Fig. 67, is a Rasorial bird included in the family of the Perdicinae or Partridges. The quail attains a length of about 8 in. The feathers of the head are bl...
-The Capercailzie, Or Cock Of The Wood (Tetrao Urogallus)
The Capercailzie, or Cock of the Wood (Tetrao urogallus), Fig. 68, included in the Tetraonidae, sub-familyTetraoninae, is the largest species of grouse, about 2 ft. 10 in. in length, and weighing from...
-The Black Grouse Or Black Cock (Tetrao Tetrix)
The Black Grouse or Black Cock (Tetrao tetrix), Fig. 69, a member of the family Tetraonidae, is about the size of a common fowl, though it is much heavier, and is distinguished by the male having the ...
-The Red Grouse (Lagopus Scoticus)
The Red Grouse (Lagopus scoticus), Fig. 70, a member of the Rasorial birds (so named from their scratching habits, and represented by such forms as the fowls, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, grouse, a...
-The Common Ptarmigan Or White Grouse (Lagopus Mutus Or Vulgaris)
The Common Ptarmigan or White Grouse (Lagopus mutus or vulgaris), Fig. 71, has the legs and feet thickly covered with hairlike feathers. It is ash-coloured in summer, but its hue changes to a pure whi...
-The Common Wild Duck Or Mallard (Anas Boschas)
The Common Wild Duck or Mallard (Anas boschas), Fig. 72, is included in the family Lamellirostres of the Natatores or Swimming Birds, and in the sub-family Anatidae or Ducks. It is found both in Europ...
-The Common Teal (Querquedula Crecca)
The Common Teal (Querquedula crecca), Fig. 73, is included with the Anatinae or True Ducks and is the smallest of British ducks. Fig. 73. - The Common Teal. The head is coloured chestnut-brown ab...
-The Widgeon (Mareca Penelope)
The Widgeon (Mareca Penelope), Fig. 74, included in the Ana-tidae or Ducks, and belonging to the sub-family Anatinae of the True Ducks, is distinguished by the bill being uniformly broad throughout, a...
-Part II. Influences
In the preceding pages the principal vertebrate animal friends and foes of the sportsman, the fisherman, the forester, the farmer, and the gardener have been treated of; therefore we now take up the t...
-Chapter VI. Wild Animals. Insectivorous And Harmless
Bats The influence the family Cheiroptera or bats exert is an altogether beneficial one, their importance being apparent when it is stated that there are fifteen or sixteen different species found in...
-Useful And Partly Injurious Wild Animals
Badger This mammiferous quadruped of the plantigrade tribe must be considered too uncommon to inflict serious damage upon the sportsman's or the poultry-farmer's interests. Gamekeepers and dog-fancie...
-Hedgehog
Nocturnal or crepuscular in habit, little is seen of this quadruped, except in the long summer evenings and in the early dawn. Its usual food consists of large insects, worms, slugs and snails, also m...
-Mole
The natural enemies of the mole are now so few in number that once a colony of moles becomes established in any locality the occupier of the land has to consider whether the work of the subterranean c...
-Mole. Continued
The Kent Garden Tube and Board-top Mole Traps, Fig. 78, combine the advantages of the common wooden ones with the substitution of a steel spring for the ordinary spring stake, and dispensing with pegs...
-Weasel
This little animal must be regarded as an enemy of the game-preserver and the poultry-keeper, inasmuch as its small-ness is made up for by its savage and active masterliness over young rabbits, levere...
-Destructive Wild Animals
Marten This member of the weasel family can only be said to be useful in keeping down squirrels, and when descended to the ground preying upon mice, rats, and voles, all enemies of the forester's and...
-Fox
In the hunting shires of England and Wales there are about 170 foxhound packs containing 6,400 couples of hounds; in Scotland, 11 packs, with 358 couples; and in Ireland, 24 packs, with 1,042 couples,...
-Stoat
Although smaller than the polecat, the stoat is very swift and active, cunning and cruel, usually contenting itself by sucking the blood of its prey. It is so active that it requires a smart dog to ca...
-Otter
To have otters inhabiting a reach of river and to keep up a stock of fish therein is generally regarded as an incompatible condition of affairs. Nevertheless, trout are often found abundant near the h...
-Rat
To the game-preserver the brown rat is very troublesome. It destroys the young birds and the eggs of both pheasants and partridges, and also consumes quantities of grain food. Wary and cunning, rats g...
-The Everitt Patent Safety Vermin Trap
The Everitt Patent Safety Vermin Trap, Fig. 84 (supplied by Mr. H. Lane, Eagle Works, Wednesfield, Staffordshire), may be used amongst ground or winged game, poultry, etc., without fear of their being...
-The Snare-spring Trap
The Snare-spring Trap (Fig. 85, G) consists of a peg (r), a piece of straight stick (s) about 4 in. long, with one end chisel-pointed and a slit in the other end, a piece of whipcord (t), fine brass w...
-The Barrel Trap
The Barrel Trap (Fig. 85 H) consists of an ordinary cask with one end out, and a lid with four falls (z). The falls are not less than 6 in. long and 3 in. wide, each working on two pivots (b), and thi...
-The American Permanent Rat Trap
The American Permanent Rat Trap (Fig. 86, j) comprises a long, narrow box (g), 3 or 4 ft. long, and 7 or 8 in. wide and deep. This is set upon another box about 30 in. high, with sloping sides (h), so...
-The Rat-Guard
The Rat-guard (Fig. 86, K) is a simple method of keeping rats away from anything that is hung up, and is made as follows: Procure the bottoms of some fruit-cans by melting the solder which holds them...
-Mouse
The House or Domestic Mouse may be said to serve no useful purpose to any culture, but is a pest in the dwelling, outbuilding, stackyard, garden, etc., everywhere in presence of food and shelter gnawi...
-Kent Field And Garden Mouse Trap
Kent Field and Garden Mouse Trap (Fig. 91, N 0) is a very old contrivance. To form it, provide two bricks and a piece of wire about as stout as a knitting needle and 2 in. long. Place one brick on end...
-The String-Brick Trap
The String-brick Trap (Fig. 92) consists of two pegs, a piece of string, two or three peas, and a brick. To form it, push the two pegs (7) into the ground at about 6 in. distance apart, thread two or ...
-Voles
The Water-Vole certainly does considerable damage to embankments of streams, ponds and reservoirs, hence an enemy of riparian owners, and being a great traveller in quest of food is injurious to fores...
-The Common Field-Vole (Microtus Or Arvicola Agrestis)
The Common Field-Vole (Microtus or Arvicola agrestis) dwells in fields, and is at all times to be found in pastures, attracting little notice until, favoured by season and abundance of food, it multip...
-For The Red Field Or Bank-Vole (Microtus Or Arvicola Glareolus)
For the Red Field or Bank-Vole (Microtus or Arvicola glareolus) that frequents meadows, rough pastures, woodland glades, borders of woods and plantations, there is no trap so telling as the Mouse or S...
-Squirrels
To plant forest trees, particularly coniferous, with the object of producing timber profitably where squirrels abound is useless, for they bite through the leading growths, especially of spruce, silve...
-Dormouse
These animals must be regarded in the same category as squirrels, being injurious to the forester, and also to the nut and fruit grower, the damage they inflict in woods and orchards being similar to ...
-Chapter VII. Wild Birds
Although birds range over a much wider area than four-footed animals, they are mostly restricted to certain limits of country, food being the all-important factor combined with convenient places for r...
-Resident Insectivorous And Harmless Wild Birds
Common Creeper The tree-creeper is so active and assiduous in minding its own business that no one, unless the stone-throwing boy, strives to do it mischief. In woods, on hedgerow trees, in pleasure ...
-Kestrel Or Windhover
The Kestrel does a considerable amount of good by killing mice and voles, which form its chief food, and in consequence is of great service to the forester, farmer, and gardener. In a certain agricult...
-Barn Owl
This far too scarce bird is sometimes classed among the winged vermin, but we think very unjustly, though some gamekeepers aver that it may occasionally take a young pheasant or rabbit, yet admit that...
-Wren. Golden-Crested Wren. Fire-Crested Wren
Active, fearless, ever searching for eggs, larvae, pupae of insects, and in due season feeding its young on green caterpillars, and other soft insects, such as aphides, and never taking any food but s...
-Long-Tailed Titmouse. Cole Titmouse. Marsh Titmouse
Long-Tailed Titmouse Nothing but good can be said of this bird in the woods and plantations, and though credited with sometimes doing injury to fruit bushes and trees by attacking the buds, this is n...
-Goldfinch
Happily the goldfinch lives, thanks to the keen eye kept on bird-catchers by policemen, if for nothing less than to set a pattern to Parish and District Councils in keeping down thistle and sowthistle...
-Woodpeckers
The great spotted woodpecker and the lesser woodpecker may yet be found in large woods, parks, and pleasure grounds, but very deplorably in decreasing number, which may to some extent be due to the gr...
-Lapwing
The peewit is the most useful of all wild birds to the marsh, meadow, arable, and moorland farmer. It eats not any of his crops, but devours the enemies of his grass, legume, cereal, and root crops. T...
-Resident Useful And Partly Injurious Wild Birds
The Bunting Inflicting some damage on corn crops, this bird is more or less injurious to the farmer, but, esteemed as a delicacy for the table, is not likely to increase inordinately. The capture of ...
-Redbreast
Familiar and favoured throughout the country, this bird is regarded generally as entirely harmless, but it will take a heavy toll of red currants, and no worse pest exists in autumn in a house of ripe...
-Blue Titmouse
In the woods and fields this bird is faultless. In winter it hunts amongst the boughs and twigs of trees and in hedges for woolly aphis (we have known it clear badly-infested crab hedge-plants of this...
-Great Titmouse
This bird is not nearly so common as blue tomtits and does not hunt nearly so closely for insects, yet it is largely insectivorous, with a pronounced appetite for fruit, such as yew berries, kernels o...
-Missel Thrush
In the northern parts of the kingdom this bird is rather uncommon, though met with in many districts, and when taking to devouring fruit is very severe in its depredations. In recent years its distrib...
-Song Thrush
For eight or nine months of the year this bird feeds solely on snails, slugs, worms and ground insects, wild fruits and roots, such as the cuckoo pint, in severe weather. Only when garden and fruit ...
-Blackbird
To the forester; grazier; forage, cereal and root crop, also vegetable-growing farmer, the blackbird is a boon, for in these domains it feeds upon worms, beetles, caterpillars, larvae of insects, snai...
-Jay
Despite bird millinery, jays still trouble the game-preserver on account of their fondness of game-bird eggs, yet is of some service, for, ever on the watch, gives notice of intruders in coverts by ch...
-Magpie
This bird is troublesome to the game-preserver, though less common than formerly, and except in some wild districts or in woods and enclosures where the game is left to take care of itself, is fast be...
-Rook
The rook has been notorious for damage to corn and grain at seed-time for centuries, inasmuch as Henry VIII enacted that everyone should do his best to destroy rooks, crows, and choughs, upon pain o...
-Jackdaw
Like the rook, this bird sometimes acquires a taste for fruit, probably from scarcity of its usual animal food, but, though occasionally devouring cherries, does but little injury to fruit. The jackda...
-Starling
Excellent services are rendered by this bird in woods, only when they make roosting places of young plantations they, by their excrementations, ruin the trees, especially belts of conifers. The same r...
-Hawfinch
This bird is so shy in its habits as to escape detection in plundering green peas, and accordingly has to be watched for incessantly to secure effective shooting. Netting out is the only safeguard, sh...
-Chaffinch
This bird is a great friend of the forester, as it feeds largely on insects, bringing up its young almost entirely on an insect dietary, chiefly small caterpillars and aphides, and eats quantities of ...
-Greenfinch
In all but the breeding season the green linnet is present in flocks throughout Britain, particularly in cultivated and wooded districts. They frequent gardens much less than the chaffinch, but, like ...
-Common Linnet
Like the greenfinch, the brown linnet devours quantities of weed seeds of the most obnoxious kinds, and though mostly in waste places and by hedgerows and in stubbles, their work is of service to fore...
-House Sparrow
The forester is the only cultivator that does not suffer severely from an over-abundance of sparrows, while the corn-farmer is most seriously affected, and in little less degree the owner of poultry b...
-House Sparrow. Continued
The Black Thread Scare (Fig. 107, C) consists of black thread attached tightly to small sticks set upright in the ground about 4 ft. apart, and the lines not more than 1 to 2 ft. asunder, crossing the...
-Professional Bird Poisoner
At Fakenham, Norfolk, yesterday, Robert Bullen, who was described as a professional poisoner of birds, was sent to gaol for fourteen days in default of paying a fine and costs for laying grain steepe...
-Tree Sparrow
In comparison with the house sparrow this is of small economic importance, though often mistaken for the latter on account of its almost exclusively nesting in trees. House sparrows, however, are grea...
-The Field Or Skylark
This bird is wholly supported by the produce of the field - lowland and upland pastures and meadows, including rotation grasses or seeds, with clovers and other legumes, taking toll when opportunity...
-Bullfinch
This bird has not one redeeming feature save its appearance in the estimation of the fruit-grower, for the devastation caused after Christmas on the swelling buds of fruit-bushes and trees until the b...
-Wood-Pigeon
Under this term is included the ringdove or cushat and stockdove. Both are destructive to vegetable crops in gardens, fields, and woods. In gardens they feed upon the leaves of cauliflowers and other ...
-Destructive To Game, Poultry And Pigeons Wild Birds. Sparrow-Hawk
No bird has a worse character among gamekeepers, poultry-breeders, and pigeon fanciers than this, for it takes young partridges, pheasants, hares and rabbits, chickens and pigeons, and is inconsistent...
-Hen Harrier
This bird is a terror to the moorland game preserver, and the only advantage that it confers is on those cultivating the soil, always providing the pursuits are not intensive and embrace the dovecote ...
-Owl
The Long-eared Owl, the Tawny or Brown Owl, and owls generally are sometimes classed by gamekeepers and poultry-farmers among winged vermin, but, except where extensive rearing of game and poultry obt...
-Carrion Crow
This cunning bird is one of the greatest enemies the gamekeeper and poultry rearer has. It is not easily distinguished from the rook, although differing in its flight and habits, and also lacks the li...
-Aquatic Or Water Birds. Resident Insectivorous And Harmless. Wagtail
The five species of Water Wagtails or Dishwashers found in this country are all beneficial to arboriculture, agriculture, and horticulture, because their food is for the most part of a soft charac...
-Dipper
This bird is so uncommon and so little injurious, if at all, to fish, while acting beneficially by destroying larvae of insects, as to claim complete protection. In the north of Scotland it is conside...
-Partly Useful And Partly Injurious Aquatic Or Water Birds. Kingfisher
There is no question of this beautiful bird living chiefly upon fish, and of its destructiveness at fish hatcheries; therefore Fish Preservation Societies scruple not to destroy it. This is effected b...
-Heron
Though heronries are few as compared with former times, some still exist here and there throughout the country, and such good fishers are the birds that river conservators have to take repressive meas...
-Little Grebe Or Dabchick
This bird, and also the Crested Grebe, is so limited in number as to do little harm to fisheries, though neither of these birds would be tolerated in fish hatcheries or rearing ponds containing small ...
-Common Gull
This and most gulls feed principally upon fish, and in undue numbers damage the fisheries industry to a serious extent; and as their attentions to the land are mainly concentrated on the coasts, the f...
-Chapter VIII. Migratory Birds. Insectivorous And Harmless
Nightjar Or Goatsucker Feeding entirely upon insects-night-flying moths, beetles, gnats, etc. this bird is strictly protected. Sometimes, however, it is captured in glade-nets, stretched in narrow g...
-Swallows
These live solely upon insects, taking flies of all kinds and many species of gnats, small moths and beetles on the wing, and beetles and other insects upon the ground. The swarms of winged aphides th...
-Common Whitethroat Or Nettle-Creeper
Feeding upon aphides, caterpillars and other forest, field and garden pests, much benefit is conferred on the nation. Similar remarks apply to the Lesser Whitethroat or Brake Warbler. In Fruit Crops a...
-Wheat-Ear And Whin-Chat
These birds are in such esteem for the table, and so confined to solitary places, that they are not likely to increase to a degree as to change habits, which are favourable to vegetation. Wheat-ears a...
-Woodcock
Though confining its attention to woods and thickets by watercourses, swamps, etc., much good is effected by the consumption of worms and molluscs, with larvae of insects, inasmuch as pests consumed t...
-Snipe
Nesting to some extent in Britain, this bird may seem displaced in this connexion, yet snipe mostly migrate for breeding, and it is in winter time that their influence for good is exerted by destroyin...
-Partly Useful And Partly Injurious Migratory Birds
Hobby Feeding chiefly on small birds, particularly the skylark and other denizens of the field, living on herbage and on seeds and grain, including mice, voles and beetles, this bird must be regarded...
-Short-Eared Owl
To agriculturists this bird is of great service in keeping down field and grass voles, mice and young rats, beetles and other insects. Its services, however, are mostly confined to tracts that are rel...
-Blackcap Warbler. Garden Warbler
Blackcap Warbler A family of blackcaps in a cherry orchard commit great havoc, says Mr. F. Smith. They do not eat a quarter of the fruit they pick: they are also very fond of raspberries and figs....
-Fieldfare
A winter visitor, and feeding upon worms, larvae, insects, seeds and wild fruits, such as berries of mountain-ash, hawthorn (haws), holly, briar (hips), etc., no complaint is lodged against the fieldf...
-Destructive Migratory Birds
Crossbill The only means of repression is the gun when this bird appears in orchards, and by taking the nests or eggs in the forest. Sea-Swallow What the swallows and martins are to the land, this ...
-Chapter IX. Reptiles. Harmless
Common Lizard Inhabiting dry rocky places, knowing no cultivation, this creature shuns man's presence, and works in his behoof by destroying insects and their larvae, also woodlice and other pests; y...
-Chapter X. Game Large Game. Red-Deer
In the Highlands of Scotland large areas of land, called deer-forests, are devoted to this ruminant, the main object in view being pastime, known as deer-stalking, for the wealthy, who may be the prop...
-Fallow-Deer
More dainty and restless than red-deer, fallow-deer do more damage in woods and nurseries by nibbling young growth and trampling it under foot. In deer-parks, where young trees may from time to time b...
-Roe-Deer
In the wilds of northern Scotland the roebucks do considerable damage by nibbling and browsing on buds and young shoots of forest-trees, practically precluding seedlings from making their progressive ...
-Stag-Hunting
To the keeping of deer in enclosures no objection is taken by the general public other than that in the case of deer-forests occupying thousands, and deer-parks hundreds, of acres, some,1 if not all, ...
-Warding Off Attacks By Feeding
In woods, plantations and ornamental coverts much damage to trees and shrubs during hard frost and drifted snow may be avoided by placing freshly cut branches of ash, crab, poplar, thorn-acacia, etc.,...
-Wire-Netting
Hares and rabbits are connoisseurs in respect of newly introduced trees and shrubs, and will roam under the most favouring conditions of food supply, being epicurean in taste, rarely failing to test n...
-Noxious Substances
In the case of young plantations, where it would be inadvisable to exclude hares and rabbits on account of food in the shape of gorse, broom, mountain-ash and other scrub, with coarse grasses and some...
-Destroying Hares
Although hares are usually reserved for shooting, occasionally recourse is had to trapping, snaring or capturing alive. The hare constructs a form. This is sometimes a seat under a bush, sometimes a...
-Destroying Rabbits
As well known, rabbits live in small colonies, each of which consists of one or more families. These colonies are broken up in winter, preparatory to the breeding season, and are afterwards re-formed ...
-Destroying Rabbits. Continued
The trapping of rabbits has always been a bone of contention to humanitarians on the score of its cruelty, and to render the capture more in accordance with their views, various modifications of ord...
-Winged Game
Under the head of game, strictly so called, are included, throughout the United Kingdom, grouse, black game, pheasants, partridges, and hares; for the practically extinct bustard may be left out of ...
-Pheasant
The pheasant, as its name proclaims, is the bird of Phasis, the Caucasian river that falls into the Black Sea not far from the modern Batoum. But if the Argonauts brought it thence, as legends set for...
-Partridges
Under any and all circumstances partridges are far less destructive to farm-crops than pheasants, and unless over-preserved, when injury to root and other crops may result from the numerous dusting ...
-Wild Duck
In its wild state no objection can be taken to the mallard and nest of the duck family, inasmuch as throughout the year good service is rendered on both water and land by the destruction of pests, it ...
-Rooks And Seed Corn
Mr. James Howard, of Clapham Park, Bedford, having improved the recipe for an effective, but non-poisonous, dressing for seed corn which he made public two or three years ago, thus describes his prese...
-Part III. Domesticated Animals
Since the dawn of history we find record of the utilization of certain animals, birds and reptiles, for the destruction of vermin; therefore we may briefly allude to those which have been found of mos...
-Chapter XI. Animals. Cat (Felis Catus)
Herodotus, in his account of Egypt (lib. ii.), first mentions the cat as diminishing the vermin infesting human dwellings, and the celebrated naturalist Temminck, in his monograph of the genus Felis, ...
-Useful Cats
The common English breeds display great partiality for haylofts, barns, outbuildings and surroundings, and possess all the attributes of the race, namely, cunning disposition, nocturnal habits, much p...
-Dog (Canis Vulgaris)
The dog has been domesticated from the earliest times, numerous representations of the noble animal and companion of man appearing in the ancient monuments of Egypt and Assyria, even in various breeds...
-Ferret (Mustelo Furo)
Cuvier considered the ferret an albino form of the polecat (M. putoria). It is a native of Barbary, naturalized in Spain, where it was introduced to rid that country from the multitudes of rabbits. Th...
-Chapter XII. Birds
The Falconidae or Acciptrinae form one of the two divisions of diurnal birds of prey, and include falcons, hawks and eagles. The falcons proper (genus Falco), for strength, symmetry and powers of flig...
-Common Gull (Larus Canus)
The gull has a voracious appetite, and is easily tamed. For keeping in captivity it must be procured young, have one wing pinioned, or the feathers of one wing shortened. Pinioning signifies captivity...
-Lapwing Or Peewit (Vanellus Cristatus)
This exceedingly lively and nimble well-known bird, all its movements suggesting possession of great instinctive powers, takes to confinement without demur, provided it be captured just before being c...
-Chapter XIII. Poultry
This is a general name for all birds bred for the table, or kept for their eggs. The birds most commonly included under this designation are the fowl in the restricted sense of the term, the peafowl, ...
-Pigeon
The domestic or house pigeons have sprung from the Rock Dove or Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). It builds in the holes and crevices of rocks, its food consisting of grains. It is, however, also said to f...
-Cock (Phasianus Gallus)
The cock is the well-known chieftain of the poultry-yard, and rural announcer of the passage of time, whose shrill clarion, heard in the still watches of the night, inspires the restless and invalid w...
-Guinea-Fowl (Numida Meleagris)
Guinea-Fowl (Numida Meleagris), Fig. 145. The guinea-fowl belongs to the pheasant family or Phasianidae. Its name is due to the circumstance that birds of this genus are common in Guinea, and its gene...
-Peacock (Pavo Cristatus)
The peacock belongs to the subfamily Pavoninae of the pheasant family Phasianidae, and India appears to be its natural habitat, but it is abundantly domesticated in Europe. The male is the bird of fi...
-Turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo)
The turkey appears to have come originally from America, and is now a well-known denizen of our farmyards. Where given plenty of grass-run turkeys are not so given to invade gardens as fowls, though w...
-Geese
Geese are great feeders on grass and fond of water, from which they derive some subsistence in the form of water-herbage and various larval and adult insecta, Crustacea, mollusca, etc. The chief food,...
-Swan (Cygnus Sp)
Swan (Cygnus sp.). The common mute or tame swan (Cygnus olor) is the only species which is permanently resident in Britain. The nest is constructed of reeds and grasses, and is generally situated near...
-Bewick's Swan (Cygnus Minor Or Bewicki)
Bewick's Swan (Cygnus minor or Bewicki) passes the winter in Britain and flies northwards in spring. Its length is about 4 ft. It possesses an orange patch at the base of the bill, and is able to pro...
-Duck (Anas Sp)
The ducks proper are distinguished from the swans by having shorter necks; and from the geese by having shorter necks, and legs less strong and placed further back. They also subsist largely on insect...
-Chapter XIV. Reptiles. Common Frog (Rana Temporaria)
Our experience of this familiar animal in a state of confinement is restricted to a fernery under glass, where a three-legged one, with others, throve for several years, the one with a leg cut off by ...
-Common Toad (Bufo Vulgaris)
The forester, farmer and gardener has no better friend towards his crops than the despised toad, for rambling at night in woodland, in field and in garden, it destroys numbers of woodlice, millipedes,...









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