This includes all the organs in the centre of the flower, and being the female parts of the same, are as essential to it as the stamens. Taking the White Lily as an example, the lower, inflated portion is named the ovary, the long stalk on the top of it the style, and the knob on the apex of that the stigma. If the ovary be cut across, it will be seen to have three cells filled with numerous ovules or young unfertilized seeds. The three cells are an indication that the pistil consists of three carpels or modified leaves closely united. The pistil of the Buttercup, Potentilla, and Strawberry (fig. 51) consists of numerous carpels, all free from one another, and popularly termed seeds, but each consists of an ovary, style, and stigma. The Barberry, Pea, and Peach have a pistil consisting of one carpel in each flower. The number of carpels that go to the composition of the pistil of the Poppy may be determined by the number of rays to the stigma and the incomplete partitions that project into the interior of the ovary. This may be done in the Mallow, Carnation, and Carrot by counting the number of styles, and in Geranium, Pelargonium, Mint, and Salvia by counting the number of stigmas.

Pollen Grains highly magnified.

Fig. 50. - Pollen Grains highly magnified.

1, Cobaea scandens. 2, Pinus Pumilio. 3, Passiflora kermesina. 4, Circoea alpina. 5, Nymphoea alba. 6, Epilobium angustifolium. 7, Cucurbita Pepo. 8, Hibiscus ternatus.

Strawberry   with Section, showing thickened receptacle bearing the true fruits.

Fig. 51. - Strawberry - with Section, showing thickened receptacle bearing the true fruits or pips on the surface.