Insect Pests Of Fruits, Flowers, And Vegetables (Part 3)

Name of Pest.

Besting Period (Pupa Stage).

Destructive Period (Caterpillar and Perfect Insect Stage).

Plants Attacked and Remedies.

Currant and Gooseberry Sawfly (Nematus Ri-besii, fig. 119).

Sept. to Mar.

April to Sept.

Larvae eat leaves of Red Currants and Gooseberries. Dust with lime, sulphur, soot, hellebore, etc. Cultivate soil well from October to April to bring up pupae for birds.

Currant Aphis (Myzus Ribis, fig. 108).

Autumn and Winter.

Spring and Summer.

Troublesome pests on the under surface of leaves of Red, White, and Black Currants. Syringe well with nicotine solutions, and cultivate ground with hoe.

Currant and Apple Clear-wing Moth (Tro-chilium tipidiforme, fig. 103).

April to June.

Oct. to April.

The grubs pierce the young wood and feed upon the pith. The affected shoots should be cut off and burned. Spray with nicotine washes, etc, in June to prevent eggs being laid by female.

Currant Gall Mite (Eriophyes [Phytoptus] Ribis, fig. 110).

Winter.

April to Oct.

Attacks young flower buds of Black Currant, and causes "big bud". Pick off big buds, and dust with lime and sulphur two or three times in spring.

Currant-root Aphis (Schizonetira fodiens).

Winter.

Spring to Autumn.

Attacks roots of Black and Red Currants. Cultivate soil well, and occasionally drench with soapy water.

Currant Scale, White Woolly (Pulvinaria Ribesiœ).

Nov. to Mar.

April to Oct.

Attacks Black, Red, and White Currants, especially when grown on walls or fences. The pest forms whitish woolly masses and webs. Apply caustic washes in winter, and paraffin emulsion early in year.

Currant-shoot Moth (In-curvaria or Tinea capi-tella, fig. 109).

Oct. to April.

April to Sept.

The caterpillars feed on the pith of young shoots of Red and White Currants. Cut off diseased shoots and burn. Spray with nicotine, etc, in May, when female lays eggs.

Daddy Longlegs or Cranefly (Tipula oler-acea and T. paludosa, fig. 111).

Oct. to April.

May to Oct.

The maggots, known as "leather jackets ", eat the roots of many plants, and infest Turnips, Beet, Potatoes, etc. Deep cultivation, hoeing, and encouragement of birds are the best remedies. Otherwise trap with turnips, beet, potatoes, etc.

Dart Moths (Agrotis exclamationis, A. sege-tum, figs. 113 and 114).

Oct. to May.

May to Nov.

Caterpillars eat roots of all kinds of plants, feeding at night. Strew lime and soot over soil, and hoe frequently.

Diamond - back Moth (Plutella maculipennis, P. cruciferarum, fig. 112).

Oct. to May.

June to Sept.

Green or yellowish caterpillars eat away leaves of Cabbages, Turnips, etc. Dust with soot or lime, or spray with quassia and soft-soap solutions. Cultivate soil in dormant season.

Earwigs (Forficula auri-cularia).

Winter.

Spring to Autumn.

Various flowers and fruits at nighttime. Stir ground frequently, and trap with pieces of cloth, hay, etc, in pots. Deep cultivation and frequent hoeing excellent remedies.

Name of Pest.

Resting Period (Pupa Stage).

Destructive Period (Caterpillar and Perfect Insect Stage).

Plants Attacked and Remedies.

Eelworm, Nematoid Worms (Tylenchus de-vastatrix, Heterodera radicicola, H. Schachti, fig. 116).

Jan. to Dec.

Minute snake-like larvae that prey upon the roots of many garden crops, notably Cucumbers, Tomatoes, Phloxes, Gardenias, Carnations, etc. Apply lime or soot or basic slag to badly infested soil, and avoid too rich organic manures. See article on "Cucumber", Vol. IV.

Eucharis Mite. (See Bulb Mite.

Figure-of-8 Moth (Di-loba cœruleocephala, fig. 118).

Sept. to May.

May to Aug.

Larvse attack leaves of Apple and other fruit trees. Spray with Paris green, arsenate of lead, etc., in May and June. Cultivate the soil in dormant season.

Fruit-tree Beetle (Scoly-tits rugulosus).

Oct. to April.

April to Oct.

Small larvae tunnel between the bark and wood of Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, and other Rosaceous trees. Cut down and burn badly infested trees. Use hot caustic wash in winter, and cultivate soil well in summer.

Garden Chafer (Phyllo-pertha horticola).

July to April.

May to July.

Larvse feed upon leaves of Roses, fruit trees, etc. Spray with quassia, nicotine, etc, in May and June. Hoe during summer to bring up pupae for birds.

Garden Pearl Moth (Pionea forficalis).

Oct. to June.

June to Oct.

Larvae feed on leaves of Cabbage crops, Turnips, Horse Radish.

, Dust with lime or soot, or spray with nicotine or other washes. Cultivate soil well up to June.

Ghost-swift Moth (Hepi-alus Humuli, fig. 115).

May to July.

Aug. to April.

Caterpillars feed upon roots of Lettuces, Strawberries, Hops, Nettles, etc., and cause leaves to wilt. Hoe frequently from August to April, and destroy all nettles and other weeds.

Goat Moth (Cossus lig-niperda).

Winter months.

Spring to Autumn.

Fat caterpillar, 3-4 in. long, with a goat-like smell, pierces trunks of fruit and forest trees, and lives in them for three years. Thrust wire into burrows, or inject strong petroleum washes.

Gooseberry Sawfly. See Currant Sawfly.

Grape Moth (Ditula an-gustiorana, fig. 120).

Various.

Various.

Found on many trees, but chiefly destructive to Grape fruits. Shake caterpillars on to tarred paper, and burn.

Green and Black Fly (Rhopalosiphon Dian-thi, Siphonophora Pe-largoni, S. Pisi, Aphis Cratœgaria, &c).

Winter in open air.

Jan. to Dec. under glass.

Numerous garden plants infested with various species of green fly, in the open air and under glass. Fumigate under glass. Syringe with quassia and soft soap or nicotine solutions in open air.

Julus Worms. See Millipedes.

The Common Dart Moth (Agrotis segetum) 1, Moth flying. 2, Caterpillar.

Fig. 113. - The Common Dart Moth (Agrotis segetum) 1, Moth flying. 2, Caterpillar.

The Heart and dart Moth (Agrotis exclamationis).

Fig. 114. - The Heart-and-dart Moth (Agrotis exclamationis).

1, Moth at rest. 2, Caterpillar. 3, Earthen case surrounding chrysalis, 4, Chrysalis.

Insect Pests Of Fruits Flowers And Vegetables Cont 100140Ghost swift Moth (Hepialut Humuli).

Fig. 115. - Ghost-swift Moth (Hepialut Humuli).

1 and 2, Eggs (nat. size and magnified). 3, Caterpillar. 4, Chrysalis. 5 and 6, Moths, male and female (nat. size).

Eelworms or Nematoid Worms (Tylenchus).

Fig. 116. - Eelworms or Nematoid Worms (Tylenchus).

1, Transverse section of Carnation leaf, showing eel worms in the tissue. 2, Portion of Carnation leaf (magnified 50 times), showing worms escaping from the eggs and also fully developed. 3, Surface view of leaf of Oncidium, showing egg-containing pustules bursting. 4, Transverse section of leaf of Oncidium, showing eggs containing worms ready to hatch out in pustules on both surfaces, and worms in the tissues. 5, Portion of root of Cucumber (highly magnified), showing a cyst containing eggs in the centre; also eggs at the lower right-hand corner from which the worms are escaping, and worms that have escaped.

Small Ermine Moth (Hyponomeuta padella) 1, Caterpillar. 2, Moth. 3, Larva in web.

Fig. 117. - Small Ermine Moth (Hyponomeuta padella) 1, Caterpillar. 2, Moth. 3, Larva in web.

Figure of 8 Moth (Diloba cœruleocephala) A, Moth. B, Caterpillar.

Fig. 118. - Figure-of-8 Moth (Diloba cœruleocephala) A, Moth. B, Caterpillar.

Gooseberry and Currant Sawfly (Nematus Ribesii).

Fig. 110. - Gooseberry and Currant Sawfly (Nematus Ribesii).

1, Shoot of Gooseberry. 2, Eggs. 3, Larva. 4, Pupa. 5, Perfect Insect.

Grape Moth (Ditula angustiorana) 1, Moth. 2, Larva and details. 3, Chrysalis (all enlarged).

Fig. 120. - Grape Moth (Ditula angustiorana) 1, Moth. 2, Larva and details. 3, Chrysalis (all enlarged).