This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol2", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
Apart from the florist's varieties of C. indicum, which are dealt with in the next section, there are many species largely grown for cut flowers, and also for the roots and seeds. The annual kinds, like carinatum or tricolor, with its numerous varieties (of which Bur-ridgeanum is one of the best), are raised from seeds every spring, sown under glass, the young plants being afterwards pricked out into shallow boxes 2-3 in. apart, or placed singly in 3-in. pots for sale. There are single- and double-flowered varieties, the "singles" having the flower heads symmetrically banded with white, lilac, purple, yellow, maroon, &c; the "doubles" being generally white or yellow.
The Crown Daisy (C coronarium) is another showy annual species (fig. 189), 2-3 ft. high, with less finely divided leaves than in C carinatum, and bright-yellow, white, or orange flower heads in single and double forms. These are also sold in small pots and boxes (often under the name of "Marguerites" by costermongers), realizing from 6d. to 6s. 6d. per dozen. The British Corn Marigold (C. segetum) is another annual 1½ ft. high, with golden-yellow flower heads from June to September. It is easily raised from seeds, and is useful for cut flowers.
Amongst the hardy herbaceous perennials C maximum and its varieties hold the premier place. C maximum itself is a Pyrenean plant 2-3 ft. high, with glossy-green, leathery, toothed leaves, and large white flowers with a yellow centre. It grows in any good garden soil, and likes plenty of sunshine. Plants sell readily as "roots", but the market grower attaches most importance to the flowers. Large quantities are grown for Covent Garden and other markets, and although the prices are sometimes very low, the plants flower so long and so freely that they yield a very fair return. There are many fine seedling forms in cultivation, some being earlier than others - one of the best early ones being Mrs. diaries Lothian Bell. King Edward VII and Robinsoni are other good forms. They are all easily increased by division in autumn. A grower who is fond of crossing and hybridizing will find C. maximum and its varieties a source capable of producing some fine garden plants.
Other species of Chrysanthemum more or less popular for cut flowers are C. serotinum (or Pyrethrum uligi-nosum), the Great Ox-eye Daisy, about 6 ft. high, that produces its large flower heads from September to November, and sometimes realizes good prices in market. C lacustre and C. Leucanthemum (the British Ox-eye Daisy), C. latifolium, and C. nip-ponicum, all with white flowers, are worth a place with the market grower. The "Shasta Daisies", so called, are supposed to have originated by crossing forms of Leucanthemum, maximum, and nip-ponicum, and are also worth growing.
Fig. 18. - Chrysanthemum coronarium.