Hardy border perennials of great vigour, freedom of flowering, and general utility. Valuable alike in the cut state for pot or market work, or for spring flower gardening on a large scale. The leading kinds are: D. austriacum, D. caucasicum, and D. plantagineum excelsum (syn. Harpur Crewe). The flower heads are yellow in each case, Marguerite-like in appearance, and very showy. Moreover, they are among the earliest of spring-flowering plants, providing sheaves of blossoms in March and April in the open. The two first-named are of rather dwarf habit of growth, 1 or 2 ft. high, the last-named reaching to 3 ft. high and having the most handsome flowers. It is, however, less freely flowered than the others named.

Propagation is effected in springtime by division, preferably immediately after flowering, when the plants, if divided piecemeal and replanted in good ground, will make excellent examples for another year. The Doronicums are among those plants of which both the tops and the bottoms may be sold; hence for these reasons, as also their decorative value, they are among the most profitable things to grow. The plants succeed quite well in ordinarily well-cultivated soil, and are not averse to moisture. Much shade, however, is inimical to their wellbeing. For market pot work the plants should be lifted and potted in September, and accorded cold-frame treatment. [e. h. j].