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Commercial Gardening Vol2| by John Weathers (the Editor)



Hardy And Half-Hardy Herbaceous Plants, Bulbs, And Flowers. Stove And Greenhouse Plants And Flowers. Abutilon. Ferns.

TitleCommercial Gardening Vol2
AuthorJohn Weathers (the Editor)
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1913
Copyright1913, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonCommercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners

A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners, Market Growers & Fruit Flower & Vegetable Growers, Nurserymen, Etc.

By Many Practical Specialists Under The Editorship Of John Weathers, Author of "A Practical Guide to Garden Plants" "French Market Gardening" "The Bulb Book" etc.

In Four Volumes

Fully Illustrated

-Section XII. Hardy And Half-Hardy Herbaceous Plants, Bulbs, And Flowers
In growing hardy and half-hardy plants for sale the market gardener or nurseryman is guided by business instincts as to what will pay best, and not by sentiment. He crops his ground to the best advant...
-Acaena
A genus of pretty little rock plants with trailing stems, deeply toothed pinnate leaves, and small flowers. They are quite hardy in most places, and are increased by seeds, division, and cuttings. The...
-Acantholimon Glumaceum (Prickly Thrift)
A charming rock plant, 3 in. high, having dense masses of pointed leaves and rose-coloured flowers. A. venustum is similar, but is about 6 in. high and has more glaucous foliage and larger flower spik...
-Acanthus (Bear's Breech)
A genus of ornamental Thistle-like plants with large leaves more or less deeply divided and coarsely toothed, and with dense erect spikes of flowers. They like deeply dug rich soil, warm positions, an...
-Achillea
This large genus, containing the Milfoils and Yarrows, has only a few species of commercial value. The best known is A. Ptarmica, a white-flowered British species about 2 ft. high, often grown for cut...
-Aconitum
The Aconites or Monkshoods are not popular plants with market growers, probably owing to their poisonous properties. Many species, however, are grown by nurserymen for hardy borders and rock gardens, ...
-Actaea Spicata
This is the British Baneberry or Herb Christopher, having shortish black rootstocks, much-divided leaves, and erect racemes of white flowers in May, afterwards followed by black, red, or white poisono...
-Adonis
This genus contains several species of ornamental rock and border plants with finely divided fern-like foliage, and mostly with bright-yellow or golden blossoms in such species as A. amurensis, 9-12 i...
-Aethionema
A genus of pretty little free-flowering alpines, easily grown in ordinary garden soil, and increased from seeds or cuttings. The kinds mentioned here grow from 6-12 in. high, and flower from April to ...
-Ajuga Reptans (Bugle)
The purple-leaved variety of this common British plant is largely used for carpet-bedding work and for borders. It has heads of deep-blue flowers and is easily increased by division. The variegated fo...
-Alchemilla Alpina (Lady's Mantle)
A native plant, 6-9 in. high, with palmate silvery leaves and small greenish-yellow flowers. It grows in ordinary soil and is suitable for rockwork. ...
-Allium
There are many kinds of ornamental Onion, but they are not largely grown. Amongst the best kinds are: acuminatum, rose; albo-pilosum, violet; cabulicum, whitish; Ellisi, rose; Erdeli, white with a cri...
-Alstroemeria
Although these fleshy-rooted plants from Chili and Brazil are becoming more widely recognized for their value as border plants and for cut flowers, they are scarcely yet known to the market grower. A ...
-Alyssum
Of the eighty or ninety species in this genus the best known is A. maritimum or Koeniga maritima, the Sweet Alyssum of Britain. It forms dense masses of narrow leaves and small white sweet-scented blo...
-Amaranthus
A fairly good trade is done in spring in seeds, and later on in small plants in pots or boxes. A. melancolicus will grow 3 ft. high in rich soil and produces large tail-like masses of small flowers. A...
-Amaryllis Belladonna (Belladonna Lily)
Bulbs of this lovely South African plant are offered for sale every year, and are common enough to find their way on to the costermongers' barrows in Farring-don Street. The beautiful rosy bell-shaped...
-Anchusa
Of the thirty or more species in this genus the most popular is A. italica, and especially the Dropmore variety, which has tall branching trusses of brilliant blue flowers. It is a lovely border pla...
-Androsace
These are pretty little Alpine plants, 3-6 in. high, closely related to the Primulas, and chiefly valued as rock plants. They like a well-drained soil of sandy loam and peat, and are increased by seed...
-Anemone
A large and popular genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, mostly grown by nurserymen for border decoration, the chief trade being done in the roots. Some species, however, like A. fulgens (or A. hor...
-Antennaria Tomentosa
This distinct-looking composite forms a dense carpet of silvery-white foliage on the ground, and has white flower heads in June and July. It is easily increased by division, and is grown in fairly lar...
-Anthemis
The Chamomiles are not of much garden value, and only a small trade is done in them by nurserymen. They grow in any poor soil in border or rockery, but like plenty of sunshine. They are graceful enoug...
-Anthericum
A large genus of Liliaceous perennials, having stoutish, fleshy rootstocks, narrow channelled leaves, and tall spikes of white Lilylike blossoms during the summer months. They are easily increased by ...
-Antirrhinum
Such kinds as asarina, glutinosum, and sempervirens, all more or less creeping, about 6 in. high, and with pale-yellow flowers, are excellent little rock plants. See also Snapdragon. ...
-Aponogeton Distachyon (Cape Pondweed Or Winter Hawthorn)
An ornamental South African water plant with floating oblong leaves and forked spikes of white sweet-scented flowers in winter. It is propagated by careful division of the tuberous rootstocks in sprin...
-Aquilegia
The Columbines are charming border plants, and a good trade is done in the roots and also the cut spikes of bloom, especially in the hybrid long-spurred varieties that have been evolved from such sp...
-Arabis Albida
Of late years the double-flowered form of this easily-grown hardy perennial has completely driven the single-flowered variety out of the market. It is an evergreen plant with masses of grey-green blun...
-Arenaria
Pretty little rock plants for sandy and stony places, and increased by seeds, cuttings, and division. A. balearica is the best for covering stones, with dense masses of small green leaves studded with...
-Armeria
The Thrifts or Sea Pinks are excellent, tufted, grassy-looking plants for edgings and rock gardens, and are easily grown in ordinary soil. They are also easily increased in most cases by division in s...
-Arnebia Echioides
An interesting Armenian perennial, 6-12 in. high, remarkable for the fading of the blackish-purple spots that decorate the bright-yellow flowers in early summer. It is a good rock plant and is increas...
-Artemisia (Wormwood)
The best-known species are the Southernwood, A. Abrotanum, a fragrant shrubby plant, 2-4 ft. high, also known as Lad's Love and Old Man. It has divided grey-green leaves, and small yellowish flowe...
-Arum
A small trade is done in the hardy species of Arum, chiefly amongst those who love curiosities. A. crinitum, the Dragon's Mouth, is an extraordinary-looking Corsican plant, 18 in. high, with evil-smel...
-Arundo
There are two species - A. Dorax and A. conspicua - in which a trade is done by hardy-plantsmen. They are ornamental grasses from southern Europe, and produce large feathery plumes or spikes of flower...
-Asclepias Currasavica (Redhead)
A bushy Central American plant, 1-3 ft. high, having oblong lance-shaped leaves and clusters of curious orange-red or scarlet flowers at the ends of the shoots. Plants are raised from seeds or from cu...
-Asperula Odorata
This is the Common or Sweet Woodruff of Britain, with whorls of leaves and sweet-scented white blossoms. It is an excellent carpeting plant for border or shrubbery, and many people are fond of it. Oth...
-Asphodelus
There are several species of these graceful plants, with sword-like leaves, grown by nurserymen for border decoration and for cut flowers, the best being A. ramosus, 4-5 ft. high, with spikes of white...
-Aster (Starwort Or Michaelmas Daisy)
The Asters proper are ornamental border plants, many of them being so coarse and vigorous in growth as to need thinning out considerably year after year. A fair trade is done by nurserymen in some of ...
-White-Flowered
Acuminatus, 2 ft.; corymbosus, 2 ft.; diffusus, 2 ft.; dumosus, 3 ft.; ericoides, 3 ft.; graminifolius, 6 in.; longifolius, 3 ft.; macrophyllus, 2 ft.; multiflorus, 3 ft.; ptarmicoides, 2 ft.; Sturi, ...
-Blue-Flowered
Acris, 2 ft.; cordifolius, 2 ft.; linarifolius, 2 ft.; Novi Belgi, 3-6 ft.; paniculatus, 4 ft,; patens, 2 ft.; peregrinus, 1 ft.; puniceus, 4-6 ft.; sericeus, 2 ft.; sptectabilis, 2 ft.; Stracheyi, 6 ...
-Purple-Flowered
Alpinus, 1 ft.; Amellus, 2 ft.; diplostephioides, 1 ft.; terns, 2-6 ft.; Novas Anglioe, 4-6 ft.; sikkimensis, 3 ft; tricephalus, 1-3 ft. ...
-Lilac-Flowered
Amethystinus, 4 ft.; Herveyi, 1-2 ft.; Lindleyanus, 2 ft.; Shorti, 2-4 ft.; turbinellus, 3 ft. ...
-Astilbe
Graceful border plants with divided leaves and feathery trusses of blossom. The trade is chiefly confined to nurserymen, who sell the plants for borders, etc. The best-known kinds are: A. chinensis, 3...
-Astrantia Major (Masterwort)
This distinct-looking plant of the Carrot family grows 1-2 ft. high, and has small white or pink flowers surrounded with an involucre of distinctly veined pinkish bracts in summer, It grows in any soi...
-Aubrietia (Purple Rock Cress)
A fairly good trade is done in these plants, which are invaluable for rockeries and borders, to which they give a glow of beautiful purple in spring. They may be increased from seeds, division, or cut...
-Auricula (Primula Auricula)
For garden decoration the Alpine Auricula quite outdistances that known as the florist's type, however fascinating these latter may be to specialists. Of freer growth and flowering, embracing a remark...
-Bartonia Aurea (Or Mentzelia Lindleyi)
A Californian hardy or half-hardy annual 1-1 ft. high, with narrow coarsely toothed leaves and golden-yellow Hypericum-like flowers with numerous long stamens. Another species, B. decapetala (or Ment...
-Bellis Perennis
The typical species is the Common Daisy of British and European pastures, but it has given rise to many fine garden varieties - all with double flowers. They are all easily grown in moist rich soil, a...
-Bluebells (Scilla Festalis)
The Common Bluebell grows freely in any good garden soil, and its spikes of blooms sell during the early summer months. Besides the ordinary bluish-purple form, there are others having pure-white and ...
-Bocconia (Plume Poppy)
Two species - B. cordata (fig. 185) and B. microcarpa, both natives of China and Japan, have become popular plants of late years, and are in every hardy-plantsman's catalogue. They are exceedingly vig...
-Bog And Water Plants
Quite a large number of plants are now stocked by certain nurserymen to meet the demand that has arisen of late years for the furnishing of banks of lakes, ponds, streams, etc, and also for the water ...
-Brevoortia Ida Maia
A beautiful Californian bulbous plant, better known perhaps as Brodioea coccinea. It has drooping umbels of deep-red and bright-green tubular flowers. Best increased by offsets if obtainable. Seeds pr...
-Brodiaea
A genus containing several species of pretty bulbous plants, mostly North American, and fairly easy to grow. There is a fair trade in the bulbs (or conns) in the autumn, when they are planted in well-...
-Bulbocodium Vernum
A pretty Alpine Crocus-like plant of the lily family, having violet or rose-purple funnel-shaped flowers in January, not more than 6 in. above the ground. It is easily grown in good garden soil, and i...
-Buphthalmum
The two best species are B. salicifolium and B. speciosum or cordifolium, both 3-5 ft. high, with golden-yellow or orange flower heads 3-5 in. across. They grow in any garden soil, and are effective o...
-Calamintha
This genus has a few good rock plants, the best being alpina, 6 in., purple; glabella, 3 in., lilac purple; and grandiflora, 9 in., purple. They flourish in ordinary soil, and are increased by seeds a...
-Calandrinia Speciosa
This grows 1-1 ft. high, with spoon-shaped leaves and deep purple-crimson flowers from June to September. It is usually treated as a hardy annual. Other kinds are C. discolor, 1 ft., rose red; 0. opp...
-Calendula Officinalis
This is the common British yellow Marigold - an annual that is capable of looking after itself. The choicer garden varieties, like Meteor, Orange Cockade, Orange King, etc, having splendid heads of ri...
-Callirhoe
Ornamental Mallow-like plants, easily raised from seeds, but not very well known commercially. The best kinds are involucrata, with trailing stems, 6-9 ft. long, and crimson flowers; digitata, 2-3 ft....
-Callistephus Hortensis (Aster Sinensis) (Fig. 186)
This is the parent of the florist's China Aster. It is a half-hardy Chinese annual 1-2 ft. high, with rigid roughly hairy stems, ovate toothed leaves, and large beautiful mauve-purple flower heads, 2-...
-Calochortus (Mariposa Lily, Star Tulip)
A genus of pretty bulbous plants from North America, requiring warm sunny places and gritty well-drained soil. There are many kinds, one of the best being venustus with yellow hairy flowers stained wi...
-Caltha Palustris
This is the common British Marsh Marigold or Kingcup, sold for planting by the sides of lakes, streams, etc. It flourishes in rich muddy soil on river banks and streams, and the large bright-yellow Bu...
-Campanula
A very large genus of annuals, biennials, and perennials of varying size and habit. Very little trade is done in the annual species, but a little seed of G. macrostyla, C. drabcefolia, G. Erinus, and ...
-Candytuft (Iberis)
Although there are several species of Iberis the one most popular is I. umbellata, a pretty South European annual 6-12 in. high, having purple umbels of blossom. There are several varieties, such as a...
-Canterbury Bells (Campanula Medium)
Everybody knows and admires the Canterbury Bell, which is an imposing hardy herbaceous biennial of pyramidal habit of growth and profuse flowering. The cup and saucer section of these flowers is per...
-Carnations, Border
So called, doubtless, because of their hardiness and amenability to cultivation in the open air. The original wild species (Dianthus Caryophyllus). from which all the border types have been evolved by...
-Carnations, Marguerite
A distinct race of annual carnations easily raised from seed sown in heat in February and March, to flower in the open air in July to August. Seed may also be sown in autumn in cold frames when fully ...
-Catananche Coerulea
A south European perennial, 2-3 ft. high, with whitish narrow leaves, and light-blue flowers in July and August. The variety alba or bicolor has white flowers marked with blue or rose at the base of t...
-Centaurea
There are some four hundred kinds of Centaurea, but very few are grown on a large scale. The best known are C. Cyanus, the Cornflower; C. moschata or Amberboa moschata, the Sweet Sultan; and C. suaveo...
-Centranthus Ruber
This is the Red Valerian or Pretty Betsy of Britain. It flourishes in chalky soils in plenty of sunshine, and is an effective border plant 2-3 ft. high, its dense clusters of crimson-purple flowers be...
-Cephalaria Alpina
This is an attractive border plant, a kind of Giant Scabious, 5-6 ft. high, producing masses of pale-yellow flowers very useful for cutting. C. leucantha is about 4 ft. high, more compact in growth, a...
-Cerastium Tomentosum
This is the best of several species, valuable for the dense carpeting masses of silvery-white leaves spreading over the ground, and in summer overtopped with delicate sprays of pure-white flowers. A g...
-Ceratostigrna Plumbaginoides
This plant is much better known as Plumbago Larpentoe. It is a Chinese hardy herbaceous perennial, 1-2 ft. high, remarkable for the beautiful bronzy-yellow and scarlet tints of its oboval leaves and b...
-Chamaelirion Carolinianum
A pretty Liliaceous plant, 1 ft. high, with flattish leaves which turn purple in autumn, and trusses of white flowers in June, the males and females being on different plants. It likes peaty soil in s...
-Cheiranthus Alpinus (Erysimum Ochroleucum)
A good plant for the rockery or wall, with lance-shaped leaves and sulphur-yellow flowers. There is a form with variegated leaves. Other kinds are Marschalli, bright yellow; mutabilis, bronze purple; ...
-Chelone Lyoni
A North American hardy herbaceous perennial, 3-4 ft. high, with oval heart-shaped toothed leaves and quadrangular spikes of purple flowers from July to September. It is increased by seeds, cuttings, o...
-China Aster
The florist's China Aster has been evolved during the past eighty years by selection and cultivation from a beautiful Margueritelike composite - Callistephus hortensis - referred to at p. 14. There ar...
-Chionodoxa (Glory Of The Snow)
Beautiful bulbous plants from Asia Minor, chiefly valuable for spring flowering. A great trade is done in the rather small bulbs (2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per 100) in autumn - the best time for planting in ...
-Chrysanthemum
Apart from the florist's varieties of C. indicum, which are dealt with in the next section, there are many species largely grown for cut flowers, and also for the roots and seeds. The annual kinds, li...
-Chrysobaetron (Bulbinella) Hookeri
A pretty little Asphodelus-like plant suitable for marshy places or cool moist spots in the border. It has tapering spikes of yellow flowers in summer, and grows about 2 ft. high. ...
-Cimicifug'A
Graceful hardy herbaceous perennials 2-4 ft. high, with divided leaves, and long erect trusses of white and yellowish flowers useful for cutting during the summer months, albeit somewhat strong-smelli...
-Clarkia
Showy hardy annuals 1-2 ft. high, of easy growth in any garden soil, raised from seeds sown under glass in January and February for early blooms, or in the open in March, to flower from June onwards. ...
-Cnicus (Chamaepeuce) Cassabonae
This is the well-known Fishbone Thistle of South Europe. It is an ornamental plant, 2-3 ft. high, with deep green spiny fishbone-like leaves, distinctly veined with white. The flowers are pale purpl...
-Cobaea Scandens
A beautiful Mexican climber of the Phlox family with pale-green leaflets and tendrils, and bell-shaped purplish flowers. A fairly good trade is done in young plants in spring. These are raised from th...
-Collinsia Bicolor
A fine Californian annual, 1-1 ft. high, with ovate heart-shaped leaves and white and rose-purple flowers in the type. There are many varieties, including pure-white ones, and some in which the flowe...
-Conandron Ramondioides
A pretty Japanese perennial, 6 in. high, resembling Ramondia in appearance. It has lilac flowers with a bright-purple centre in summer, and likes a peaty soil. Increased by dividing and pegging down t...
-Convolvulus Tricolor
This charming South European annual (also known as C. minor) grows about 1 ft. high, and produces its lovely funnel-shaped flowers from July to September in such colours as pink, rose, crimson, violet...
-Coreopsis (Calliopsis)
The finest species for market work is C. grandiflora, a beautiful North American biennial, 1-2 ft. high, with erect slender stems and brilliant yellow flower heads. It is an excellent plant for cutt...
-Cornflower (Centaurea Cyanus)
A well-known and charming native annual or biennial, 2-3 ft. high, with narrow downy leaves, and heads of bright-blue flowers in summer and autumn. It is an excellent plant for cut flower, and a trade...
-Corydalis (Fumitory)
Only a few species are dealt in by growers. The plants are recognized by their grey-green, divided, fern-like leaves and trusses of irregular flowers. Both tuberous- and fibrous-rooted varieties grow ...
-Cosmos Bipinnatus
This graceful Mexican annual finds a sale in the young stage for bedding-out purposes in early summer. It grows about 3 ft. high, has finely divided leaves, and bright rose, purple, or white flower he...
-Crocus
There are many species of Crocus, some flowering in spring, some in autumn, but the natural species are only a commercial commodity amongst specialists, botanical gardens, and educational horticultura...
-Cyclamen (Sowbread)
The Persian Cyclamen is dealt with in the next section. The hardy kinds have become popular of late years for rock gardens, cold greenhouses, etc. They are easily grown in shady or chalky loam, and ar...
-Dactylis Glomerata Variegata
This popular grass, with silvery striped leaves, is largely used for borders and beds in which plants with darker-coloured foliage are used. Easily propagated by division in autumn or spring. ...
-Daffodils, Forcing' And Open-Air
To the commercial gardener of to-day, whether he devotes his energies to land or glass, the Daffodil has become an indispensable part of his stock-in-trade, a crop he cannot well afford to be without....
-How To Force The Daffodil
In the forcing department a matter of primary consideration is catching the early markets, since a few days - one had almost written hours - might mean a difference of pounds in the total returns of t...
-Boxes Or Pots
In the choice of receptacles there is no room for a second thought, the boxes proving to be a veritable multum in parvo in the case, the more so where they at all approach a uniform size throughout. I...
-Planting
This is a simple matter of considerable importance. Charge the boxes quite two-thirds their depth with soil, but avoid firming the soil to any considerable extent. Nearly all daffodils of the trumpet ...
-The Preparatory Stage
When planting is completed place the boxes on a level bed of ashes and give a thorough soaking of water, repeating the operation till the soil is completely saturated with moisture. Daffodils of the c...
-Introduction To Greenhouse
Planted within the already prescribed limits the varieties may be introduced to the greenhouse in the following order: Major (French grown), lirst week of November; Ard Righ, Golden Spur, Obvallaris, ...
-General Treatment Indoors
At this stage a few negatives may be helpful. Here they are. Don't be in a hurry. Don't think you can force a daffodil against its will. Don't burn so many tons of coke or coal without occasion, for, ...
-Bunching And Marketing
This is the last lap, so to speak, in the race, and not a few fail to grasp its importance. To grow a crop for weeks on end, to expend a few pounds in fuel, and finally to put the flowers on the mar...
-Open-Air Cultivation
This presents no greater difficulty than that of growing a crop of potatoes, and both may be muddled at and not grown. A fair depth of well-worked, moderately rich soil, frequent changes of site where...
-Varieties To Grow
(Indoors): Major, Ard Righ, Obvallaris, Golden Spur, Henry Irving, Princeps, Horsfieldi, Empress, Victoria, Ornatus, Emperor, Sir Watkin, Barri conspicuus, with Almira, Dante, Cassandra, Horace, and H...
-Dahlia
The cultivation of this plant for profit is necessarily quite apart from the ordinary routine growing. The various cultivators can be divided into three sections: the raisers of new varieties, the who...
-Wholesale And Retail Growers
This section of cultivators is an ever-increasing one, and likely to be so while the interest in the Dahlia continues to grow. Few people realize the tens of thousands of young plants that are raised ...
-Compost
Elaborate composts are not required, and one that is open and free will root and grow the young plants well. Old potting soil, with the addition of spent mushroom bed makes a good mixture. Some grower...
-Packing And Dispatching
The plants are generally dispatched in their pots, so that they are ready for immediate sale by the retailer, but occasionally, when sent long distances and to avoid cost of carriage, they are sent ou...
-Pot Roots
These are obtained from plants that are grown in their pots all the season, by the end of which they have formed plump little tubers and are sold during the autumn and winter. These are the only type ...
-Soil For Dahlias
For planting out it may safely be said that Dahlias will grow in almost any soil. For choice a deep loam, rather heavy, suits them best, but they will flourish in any well-cultivated soil. The better ...
-Manuring
If a good dressing of manure be applied when the land is dug, it is all that is necessary, though a dressing of superphosphate or bone compound certainly helps to produce better flowers. This is usual...
-Planting And Staking
Where pot roots or division of the old stools are relied upon for the stock they should be planted out in April, but it is not advisable to plant out young green plants until the first week in June, e...
-Thinning
Where fine flowers are required the number of growths must be regulated. This is best done in their early stages, allowing each plant five or six growths, while for ordinary purposes double the number...
-Dahlias For Cut Flowers
It cannot be said that the Dahlia occupies a prominent position in our markets as cut flowers, though there are types that are valuable for decorative work; the modern cactus varieties, with their lon...
-Market Varieties
The following are suitable varieties for market work, as they are free-flowering, with good stems and plenty of substance in the petals. No doubt the list might be largely increased, but these are goo...
-Prices
The prices for plants naturally vary. They are sold in Covent Garden as low as Is. per box of fifteen, plants all named, and mostly purchased by the barrow men. As a general rule, stock true to name i...
-Insect Pests
While the plants are still young they are often troubled with greenfly, which should be eradicated at once, or deformed foliage soon presents itself and spoils the sale of the plants. They are sometim...
-Lifting And Storing
As Hoon as the frost cuts the foliage down in the late autumn it is advisable to go over the quarters and cut off the stems about 6 in. from the surface. The old top can then be placed over the stool ...
-Exhausted Stock
It will often be found that a variety will run out, as it is termed. In the case of fancy varieties they revert to a whole colour, while many of the double and cactus forms appeal semi-double. This ...
-Delphinium (Lakkspur)
For market purposes there is nothing to beat the fine hybrid forms that are now so well known, and have been raised from crossing and intercrossing such species as elatum, elegaiis, formosum, and gran...
-Two Annual Larkspurs
D. Ajacis, while, pink, or blue; and D, consolida, blue, violet, purple, etc. - are also raised from seeds and sold in boxes in spring. ...
-Dianthus
This genus includes several valuable garden plants, notably the Carnations, Cloves, and Pinks (D. Caryophyllus), the Sweet William (D.barbatus), and a, large num-her of valuable alpine species suitabl...
-Dicentra (Dielytra) Spectabilis
This is the well-known Chinese Lyre Flower, Bleeding Heart, Lady's Locket, or Dutchman's Breeches, grown so much in pots for early bloom in conservatories, and in the open and for border decoration in...
-Dictamnus Fraxinella
This - the Fraxinella, Dittany, or Burning Bush is a pretty bushy plant 2-3 ft. high, having serrated leaflets and trusses of pale lilac-rose blossoms distinctly feathered and veined with purple. The ...
-Dimorphotheca Aurantiaca
This is a fine showy composite annual from South Africa. It grows 1-1 ft. high, and produces its rich golden-orange Marguerite-like flower heads, 2-3 in. across, with a purplish-black centre, in gre...
-Dodecatheon Meadia
A handsome North American hardy herbaceous perennial, known as Shooting Stars and American Cowslips, grows about 1 ft. high, and has tufts of oblong-obovate leaves and umbels of rosy purple or lil...
-Doronicum (Leopard's Bane)
Hardy border perennials of great vigour, freedom of flowering, and general utility. Valuable alike in the cut state for pot or market work, or for spring flower gardening on a large scale. The leading...
-Dracocephalum
These handsome border plants, known as Dragon's Heads, flourish in any ordinary soil in semi-shaded situations. They flower from May to August and sell in the autumn or spring, but the trade is rest...
-Echinacea (Rudbeckia) Purpurea (Fig. 196)
A fine North American hardy herbaceous perennial about 3-4 ft. high, with ovate lance-shaped leaves, and deep rose-purple flower heads about 4 in. across in late summer. This plant may be increased by...
-Echinops Ritro
This is the common Globe Thistle, 3-5 ft. high, with coarse prickly thistle-like leaves, and roundish steely-blue flower heads in summer. Other species are banaticus (or ruthen-icus), humilis, and s...
-Elymus Arenarius (Lyme Grass)
An ornamental grass, 3-6 ft. high, useful for planting in beds or borders or intermixed with other plants of a bushier and bolder nature. Easily increased by division or from seeds. There are several ...
-Eomecon Chionantha
A handsome Chinese perennial with thickish roots, pale-green roundish leaves, and pure-white flowers in summer with a cluster of orange stamens in the centre. A somewhat tender plant, requiring warm s...
-Epilobium (Willow Herb)
Of the fifty species known, E. angusti-folium is probably the best. It grows 36 ft. high, has willow-like leaves and spikes of crimson flowers; but there is also a very attractive whiteflowered variet...
-Epimedium
Graceful dwarf perennials with ornamental bristly leaves often highly coloured with rose, brown, or purple. They grow in moist peat and loam, and are useful for the rock garden or border. Propagation ...
-Eranthis Hyemalis (Winter Aconite)
The irregular tuberous roots of this sell freely in autumn with the usual bulbous plants. It is valuable for planting thickly in borders, shrubberies, rockeries, and beneath deciduous early-flowering ...
-Eremurus
Magnificent herbaceous perennials with thick fleshy roots, long sword-like leaves, and immense spikes of starry flowers often towering 8 or 10 ft. above the soil. They like a well-drained loamy soil i...
-Erigeron (Stenactis) Speciosus
This is the most-showy and best selling member of a large genus. It grows in any good garden soil, and loves the sun. It produces masses of soft-violet or magenta-purple Marguerite-like flowers with a...
-Erodium Manescavi
This is a fine rock-garden plant, 1-2 ft high, with deeply penetrating roots, divided leaves, and masses of showy Geranium-like flowers rich purple crimson in colour. E. macradenium (or glandulosum) i...
-Eryngium Amethystinum
This is a fine European Sea Holly, 2-3 ft. high, having spiny lobed leaves, and bright-blue or amethyst-purple flowers and bracts. Closely related is E. Oliverianum, a taller plant with amethyst-blue ...
-Erythronium
A fine genus of bulbous plants, all natives of North America, except the well-known European species, E. Dens-canis, the Dog's Tooth Violet. They flourish in well-drained sandy soil, but in partially ...
-Eschscholtzia Californica (Californian Poppy)
A free-flowering and popular Californian annual with grey-green finely divided leaves and bright orange-yellow flowers. There are now many charming and much-improved varieties, such as Carter's Carmin...
-Eucomis
Large bulbous-rooted plants from South Africa, almost hardy, and best grown in south borders at the base of a warm wall in rich well-drained soil. They have large bulbs, strap-shaped rosettes of leave...
-Eupatorium Ageratoides
This is a fine hardy plant about 4 ft. high, with dense feathery masses of white Ageratum-like flowers in August and September. It grows freely in any soil, and may be increased by division or seeds. ...
-Euphorbia
There are several species of hardy Spurge worts, all easily grown in ordinary soil, and increased from seeds or division. The best selling kinds are capitata, 6 in., yellow; Cyparissias, the Cypress S...
-Everlasting Flowers
This name has been given several plants the flowers of which retain their colour and shape for several months in a dried state. Amongst the best Everlastings are the following: - Helichrysum monstr...
-Forget-Me-Not (Myosotis)
This pretty-flowered and popular genus embraces hardy plants, several species of which are natives of Britain, including the Wood Forget-me-not (M. sylvatica) and the Marsh Forget-me-not (M. palustris...
-Foxglove (Digitalis Purpurea)
Next to the Wallflower or Sweet William the Foxglove is still worthy of attention by the commercial gardener, and those who specialize in root crops more particularly. The plant must be regarded and t...
-Francoa (Maiden's Wreath)
Almost hardy plants with roughish leaves and long arching sprays of blossom. They are often grown in pots, and are easily raised from seeds sown in warmth in spring. The two species known, appendicula...
-Fritillaria (Fritillary)
Of the many species of Fritillary known, the Crown Imperial (F. imperialis) seems to be the only one grown at all extensively for market purposes. It is often grown in market gardens between rows of f...
-Funkia (Plantain Lily)
These ornamental foliage plants with thickish rootstocks flourish in any good garden soil, and are easily increased by dividing the roots in autumn or spring, and also by seeds sown in spring. There i...
-Gaillardia (Flannel Flower)
Showy even to gorgeousness in some instances, Gaillardia grandiflora (fig. 200) is a plant to be cultivated by all who take up hardy flowering subjects from the commercial point of view. Resplendent i...
-Galanthus (Snowdrop)
The bulbs and flowers of the Snowdrop are both good market commodities. In autumn the trade consists in selling thousands of bulbs, and in early spring thousands of bunches of the common single and do...
-Galax Aphylla
This charming North American hardy herbaceous perennial has found its way into the markets and florists' shops, and even among street sellers of late years. It grows about 6 in. high, and produces fin...
-Galeg'A Officinalis (Goats' Rue)
A fine strong-growing European perennial, 3-5 ft., with graceful pinnate leaves, and spikes of pale-blue Pea-like blossoms borne in great profusion in summer. The white variety alba is even more charm...
-Galtonia (Hyacinthus) Candicans
This noble South African bulbous plant has long, sword-like leaves, and tall erect racemes of drooping white bell-shaped flowers in summer. It flourishes in good and well-drained garden soil, but is o...
-Gazania Splendens
A pretty garden plant supposed to be a hybrid between the orange G. rigens and the yellow G. uniflora, both natives of South Africa. It grows about 1 ft. high, and has narrow spoon-shaped leaves rema...
-Gentiana
Owing to the difficulty that is generally experienced in cultivating the Gentians, they are found only in few gardens, where a delight is taken in overcoming cultural obstacles. The trade in the plant...
-Geranium (Crane's Bill)
The geranium proper must not be confused with the florist's Geranium, which is more correctly known as the Zonal Pelargonium (which see). The Geraniums are mostly hardy herbaceous perennials, with d...
-Gerbera Jamesoni
An ornamental South African perennial, hardy only in the milder parts, but worthy of cool greenhouse culture. It has rosettes of lobed rather coarse leaves, and brilliant orange-scarlet Marguerite-lik...
-Geum
Pretty rosaceous plants easily grown in any garden soil. They may be raised from seeds, but the choicer kinds are best propagated by-division in autumn. The trade is chiefly in the plants in autumn an...
-Gilia Tricolor
A popular Californian annual, 1-2 ft. high, with divided fern-like leaves and tubular flowers of orange, deep and pale purple. There are several varieties, all easily raised in gentle heat, or as hard...
-Gillenia Trifoliata
A graceful Spiraea-like herbaceous perennial from North America. It grows 1-2 ft. high, has slender dark-red stems, three-parted leaves, and loose clusters of white and reddish flowers in June and Jul...
-Gladiolus
There are many species of gladiolus, but not one has yet attained sufficient importance to become a market plant. Excluding the European byzantinus and communis, they are mostly natives of Southern Af...
-Gnaphalium
A large genus closely related to Antennaria, having a few species of garden value. G. lanatum is remarkable for its fine silvery foliage and dwarf habit, and is used as an edging for beds and borders....
-Godetia
Beautiful and popular hardy annuals with many varieties, all easily raised from seed sown under glass or in the open air in spring. Young plants sell readily in shallow boxes in spring for purposes of...
-Grasses, Ornamental
Apart from the Pampas Grass (Gynerium or Cortadeira), the Cock's-foot Grass (Dactylis), there are several kinds useful for cutting, and often employed with floral decorations. Among these are the Bunc...
-Gunnera
Coarse, bold-growing, and ornamental Chilian plants with immense Rhubarblike leaves, often 6-9 ft. across. The small flowers are borne on large erect club-like spikes in the centre of the plant. The p...
-Gynerium (Cortadeira) Argenteum (Fig. 206)
This is the well-known Pampas Grass of South America, with long grey-green swordlike leaves, 6 ft. or more long, and dense erect silvery-white plumes of flowers borne on stalks 10-12 ft. high. Tufts a...
-Gypsophila Elegans
A charming Caucasian annual, 1-1 ft. high, with masses of pure-white flowers borne on slender hair-like stems. Seeds are sown in the open air two or three times during the year in the shallow drills ...
-Haberlea Rhodopensis
A charming Ramondia-like plant, 4-8 in. high, with flat tufts of coarsely-toothed leaves, and umbels of pale-lilac bell-shaped drooping flowers in summer. The plants like a peaty soil in cool shaded p...
-Helenium
Easily grown plants of the Sunflower family, flourishing in any garden soil and in open sunny spots, and easily increased by division in autumn or spring. The best kinds are autumnale, 4-6 ft., pure y...
-Helianthus (Sunflower)
There are annual and perennial species of Sunflower, but very few are grown extensively for market. The best perennial kind is H. rigidus (formerly known as Harpalium). This grows 3-5 ft. high, has ro...
-Helleborus Niger (Christmas Rose) (Fig. 207)
This is grown extensively in some market gardens between rows of Apples, Pears, Plums, etc, chiefly for the large pure-white blossoms which appear naturally at Christmas time and later. The plants lik...
-Hemerocallis (Day Lily)
Although lovely and easily grown garden flowers the Day Lilies are useless for cut bloom, as they fade so quickly, notwithstanding the fact that one bloom opens as rapidly as another withers. They gro...
-Heracleum Giganteum (Or Villosum)
A coarse - growing but very ornamental plant, 6-10 ft. high, with thick, green and purplish stems, large-lobed spreading leaves, and masses of small white flowers borne in umbels 18 in. or more across...
-Herniaria Glabra
A prostrate British herb, forming dense masses of small green leaves, that render it valuable for carpet bedding. ...
-Heuchera Sanguinea
This magnificent hardy perennial, although it sells well with nurserymen, has not yet become so popular as it deserves to be in the market. There are several varieties, some being comparatively poor a...
-Hibiscus Africanus Major (Also Known As H. Trionum)
A beautiful hardy annual, 2 ft. high, with Mallow-like leaves and flowers, the latter being 2 in. across, yellow, with a purple or deep-violet centre. ...
-Holcus Mollis Variegatus
This is a beautiful grass plant, forming tufts of soft downy leaves striped with green and clear silvery white. It is effective as an edging plant, and is much used in some public gardens. It is easil...
-Hollyhock (Althoea Rosea)
More than three hundred years ago the Hollyhock came from China, and is still a garden favourite. One time, indeed, before other beautiful hardy rivals became common, great attention was given to the ...
-Honesty
This is the popular name for Lunaria biennis (or L. annua). It is closely related to the Wallflower, and grows 2-3 ft. high, with violet-purple or white flowers in summer. It is grown chiefly for its ...
-Hop (Humulus Lupulus)
The rootstocks of the common British Hop find a good sale in spring, and are put up in boxes for market during the season. The female kind is most appreciated, as it produces the large bunches of gree...
-Hyacinth
The florist's Hyacinth has descended in the course of centuries from the wild Hyacinthus orientalis, and there are now hundreds of varieties on the market. A good trade is done not only in the bulbs i...
-Roman Hyacinths
A fairly good trade is done in what are known as French Roman Hyacinths and in Dutch Roman or Miniature Hyacinths. The price of the former to the grower for market varies from 10s. 6d. to 20s. and 30s...
-Incarvillea Delavayi (Fig. 210)
A fine fleshy - rooted Chinese perennial about 2 ft., with coarsely toothed leaflets and trusses of tubular rosy-carmine flowers spotted with brown and yellow in the throat. I. grandiflora is a somewh...
-Inula Glandulosa
This ornamental Caucasian hardy perennial grows in any garden soil, and is easily increased by seeds, division, and from root cuttings under glass. It grows about 2 ft. high, and has oblong serrate le...
-Iris (Flag)
A large genus of beautiful-flowering herbaceous plants having either bulbs or rhizomes. For market purposes the German (I, germanica) and Florentine (I. florentina) are the best. They grow in any soil...
-Isopyrum Thalictroides
A charming plant, 9-15 in. high, with Maidenhair-like leaves and small white flowers in April and May. It is easily grown and raised from seeds, and by division. ...
-Ixia
This is a genus of bulbous plants, natives of South Africa, with fibrous-coated corms, and long spikes of lovely flowers excellent for cutting purposes. Unfortunately they can only be grown in the ope...
-Kaulfussia Amelloides
A pretty, hairy, South African hardy or half-hardy annual, with deep-blue daisy-like flower heads having a yellow centre. There are numerous forms, having flowers of white, rose, carmine, violet, etc....
-Kniphofia
Still popularly known under the old name of Tritoma, this genus contains several species of very ornamental herbaceous perennials. The trade done in them is, however, almost entirely confined to the n...
-Kochia Scoparia
Under this name Ghenopodium scoparium is now largely grown from seeds every year, the plants being used for bedding out in summer. They are popularly known under the names of Belvedere and Lawn Cyp...
-Leucojum (Snowflake)
Beautiful hardy bulbous plants with strap-shaped leaves and flowers like large Snowdrops tipped with green. They grow in any good garden soil, the best varieties being the Spring Snowflake (L. vernum,...
-Liatris
A group of showy perennials, easily grown in ordinary soil, and increased by seeds and division. The best kinds include elegans, 2-4 ft.; graminifolia, a tuberous-rooted species, 2 ft.; odoratissima, ...
-Lilium
Apart from the kinds grown under glass by market growers (see p. 179) the trade done in other species of Lilium is practically confined to the nurseryman. Here and there one finds a patch of the Turk'...
-Lily Of The Valley (Convallaria Majalis)
For sixty years or more the Lily of the Valley has been a favourite flower with market growers, but there are millions grown now where there were only hundreds grown half a century ago. Indeed there a...
-Linaria (Toad Flax)
This large genus includes many plants of garden value, all easily grown, and suitable for rock gardens, old walls, etc, like the common Toad Flax (L. vulgaris). Among the dwarfer kinds 2 to 9 in. high...
-Linum (Flax)
There are several species all easily grown in ordinary garden soil, in open sunny spots. Amongst the best-known kinds are the following: alpinum l ft., blue; flavum, 1 ft, yellow; grandiflorum (fig. 2...
-Lithospermum Prostatum
This is the best known of many species. It is a trailing hairy perennial about 4 in. high, with linear leaves and deep-blue flowers. The variety Heavenly Blue is much deeper in colour. Other kinds a...
-Lupinus
The Lupines are showy Leguminous plants, all perfectly hardy and easily grown in any ordinary garden soil. They are very ornamental in leaf and blossom, and a fair trade is done in spring in plants of...
-Lychnis Chalcedonica (Fig. 222)
This is the best-known species, 2-3 ft. high, having dense heads of scarlet flowers in summer. It is easily raised by seeds and by division in autumn or spring, and grows in any good garden soil. The ...
-Lycoris Radiata
A beautiful Chinese and Japanese bulbous plant, 1-1 ft. high, with bright flowers. L. squamigera from Japan, has rose-red flowers or lilac on stems, 2-3 ft. high. L. aurea has bright - yellow flowers...
-Lysimachia Nummularia (Creeping Jenny, Moneywort)
This British plant, with creeping stems, roundish glistening - green leaves, and yellow flowers from June to August, is a popular market plant, and is largely grown for window-box decoration in summer...
-Malope Trifida
A showy Spanish hardy or half-hardy annual, 1-3 ft. -high, with three - lobed mallow - like leaves and large crimson flowers. There are several varieties, including a white one, but the best is grandi...
-Marigold
The common Marigold is already dealt with under the name of Calendula officinalis (which see). The French Marigold (Tagetes patula) in numerous varieties grows from 6-12 in. high, has finely divided l...
-Marvel Of Peru (Mirabilis Jalapa)
This tuberous-rooted Peruvian perennial is usually treated as a half-hardy annual. It grows 2-4 ft.-high, and has large, smooth, oval, pointed leaves, and late in summer masses, of long-tubed funnel-s...
-Matricaria Inodora
The double-flowered form (/lore pleno) of this British annual or biennial is the best for market work, the flowers being useful for cut during the summer months. They are white, rounded, with a yell...
-Meconopsis
A genus of pretty Poppyworts, including the Welsh Poppy (M. cambrica), 1-2 ft. high, with pale-yellow flowers; M. heterophylla, 1-1 ft., orange yellow; M. integrifolia, 1-1 ft., a fine biennial, wit...
-Megasea
This includes the large-leaved Saxifrages of leathery texture, some of the finest plants being the following: cordifolia, 1 ft., clear rose, with a deeper variety purpurea; crassifolia, 1 ft., deep pi...
-Melianthus Major (Honey Flower)
A handsome South African plant, 4-6 ft. high, with blue-green leaves cut into four to six pairs of serrated segments. It is raised from seeds sown in heat from January to March, the young plants being...
-Mentha Gibraltarica
This variety of the British Pennyroyal (M. Pulegium) forms dense tufts of deep-green roundish oval leaves, and is an excellent plant for carpet bedding. Increased by cuttings or division under glass. ...
-Mertensia Virginica
A pretty North American perennial, 1-2 ft. high, with ovate lance-shaped leaves and tubular purple-blue flowers from April to June, drooping from the axils of the upper leaves. Another good plant is s...
-Mignonette (Reseda Odorata)
This has been a favourite market plant for many years, and is still largely cultivated for cut flowers and in pots. The plants may be had in blossom at almost every season of the year, and seeds are ...
-Monarda Didyma
This North American perennial is well known as the Bergamot. It grows 2-3 ft. high, has four-angled stems, heart-shaped fragrant leaves, and heads of bright-scarlet flowers in summer. It is easily g...
-Morina Longifolia
A fine Thistle-like plant, 3 ft. high, with deeply cut spiny leaves, and stout spikes of tubular pink and crimson flowers from June to September. Other kinds are betonicoides, 1 ft., rose purple; and...
-Morisia Hypogaea
A pretty Sardinian rock plant, 2 in. high, having rosettes of deep-green cut and lobed leaves, and clear-yellow flowers in April and May. Best raised from seeds. ...
-Muehlenbeckia
This genus contains a few kinds of curious creeping plants with woody stems and small roundish leaves. They are useful for old tree stumps, etc. The best kinds are adpressa, complexa, and nana. ...
-Myosotidium Nobile
A fine perennial from the Chatham Islands, 1 ft. high, with large glossy-green plaited leaves, and clusters of rich-blue Forget-me-not-like flowers. This plant is only hardy in the mildest parts of t...
-Narcissus
Apart from the kinds grown for market under the name of Daffodils (see p. 26), there are several species, varieties, and hybrids now in commerce, some of them exquisite in shape and colour, and vary...
-Nasturtium
Under this name several garden forms of Tropaeolum majus and T. minus are grown and sold in pots or boxes early in the year for bedding out. Being easily grown annuals the seeds are sown in any ordina...
-Nemesia Strumosa
This beautiful half-hardy South African annual is now largely used for bedding out during the summer months, and also for greenhouse decoration. It grows 1-2 ft. high, has oblong, pointed leaves, and ...
-Nemophila
Popular and showy hardy annuals easily raised from seeds, in which florists do a fairly good trade in spring. Plants raised early in gentle heat, and pricked out into shallow boxes, also sell for bedd...
-Nepeta
The variegated form of the common British Ground Ivy (N. Glechoma) is a very pretty trailing plant useful in the rock garden or border, or for hanging baskets. It has roundish leaves beautifully varie...
-Nertera Depressa (The Bead Plant Or Fruiting Duckweed)
A remarkable New Zealand plant which forms dense tufts of small fleshy bright - green leaves, upon which numerous bright orange - red berries (fig. 227) about half the size of peas are seated after th...
-Nicotiana (Tobacco)
There are several species of Tobacco grown largely for sale in spring and early summer. The most popular, however, are N. affinis, the white sweet-scented species, 2-3 ft. high, and the rose, pink, an...
-Nierembergia Rivularis
This South American perennial with drooping or creeping stems, spoon-shaped leaves, bell-shaped flowers 1-2 in. across, is a charming plant for growing in window boxes or pedestal vases. It flourishes...
-Nigella Damascena (Devil-In-The-Bush; Fennel Flower)
A pretty hardy annual 1-2 ft. high, with finely cut leaves and large white or blue flowers. There is a double-flowered form, and also a dwarf strain. N. hispanica is the Love-in-a-Mist (fig. 228), h...
-Nolana Atriplicifolia (Grandiflora)
A beautiful trailing Peruvian hardy or half-hardy annual with hairy stems and blue funnel-shaped flowers with a white centre - pure white in the variety alba. ...
-Nycterinia (Or Zaluzianskia)
The best-known kinds are capensis, with narrow leaves and spikes of whitish flowers, and selaginoides, having white flowers with an orange centre. Both kinds are South African annuals, and are raised ...
-Cenothera
A large genus, best known perhaps from the Evening Primrose (CE. biennis), a North American biennial, 2-4 ft. high, with beautiful sweet - scented primrose - yellow flowers. The variety La-marckiana...
-Perennials
Among -the best perennial species of CEnothera the following are grown for sale: fruticosa, 2-3 ft., yellow, with a fine deep - coloured form called Youngi, and a semi - double one; eximia (caespitosa...
-Omphalodes Verna
A pretty rock plant, 6 in. high, with trailing stems and deep-blue Forget-me-not-like flowers from March to May. The variety alba has white flowers, and later. It likes sandy loam, and is raised from ...
-Onosma Echioides (Tauricum)
A charming Caucasian perennial about 1 ft. high, with tufts of hairy lance-shaped leaves, and clusters of drooping golden-yellow flowers (fig. 229). Other kinds are albo-roseum, white; bracteosum, whi...
-Hardy Orchids
The development of open-air gardening has brought about a trade in many kinds of hardy terrestrial orchids, most of which are grown for sale in pots, and are used for the decoration of nooks in the ro...
-Ostrowskya Magnifica
A magnificent Bellflower from Turkestan, 4-5 ft. high. It has large tuberous, Parsnip-like roots, circles of toothed leaves, and beautiful, bell-shaped flowers up to 4 in. across, white stained with l...
-Ourisia Coccinea
A handsome Chilian rock plant about 9 in. high, with oval coarsely toothed leaves, and drooping scarlet flowers from May to September. It likes moist peaty soil, and partially shaded places and warm, ...
-Oxalis
A large genus of tuberous-rooted plants from various parts of the world, easily recognized by their lobed leaves. Some kinds are grown in greenhouses, but several are fairly hardy. Among these latter ...
-Paeonia (Paeony)
Although there are many distinct species of Paeony known in botanical collections, only one or two are grown extensively for market. Indeed the species themselves are not grown at all, but the magnifi...
-Pansy
Originally derived from Viola tricolor, the Pansy has been enormously improved and vastly increased in size. At one time, more particularly in- northern districts, societies existed to further the cla...
-Papaver
This genus comprises the various kinds of Poppies - annual and perennial. The Iceland Poppy (P. nudicaule), a native of Siberia and North America, is the finest of all for market. Although really a pe...
-Parnassia Palustris (Grass Of Parnassus)
A charming little bog plant with rounded leaves and white flowers. There are several North American species and nubicola from the Himalayas, all very similar in appearance. They like damp peaty soil, ...
-Paronychia Argentea (Nailwort)
This forms dense compact green and silvery patches; and P. serpylli-folia, with trailing stems and masses of small thyme-like leaves, make good carpet plants. ...
-Pentstemon
The hybrid Pentstemon of to-day had their origin in P. Hartwegii or P. gentianoides and P. Cobcea, both natives of North America. They are plants of great garden value and ornament - valuable because ...
-Perilla Nankinensis (Fig. 235)
A distinct half-hardy annual, with heart-shaped ovate deep-purple strongly veined leaves, which constitute the chief feature of the plant for bedding purposes. Seeds are sown best in cutting boxes abo...
-Phlox
This genus contains annual and perennial varieties. P. Drummondii and its numerous varieties are usually grown as half-hardy annuals, but they may also be sown in the open ground in March to flower du...
-Herbaceous Phloxes
These charming border perennials, grown so largely, are known under the names of P. decussata and P. suffruticosa, the first being the tall late-flowering varieties, the second the dwarfer early-flowe...
-Phormium Tenax (New Zealand Flax)
An ornamental plant 3-8 ft. high, with broad sword-like leaves which in some varieties assume tints of red and purple, while another is striped with creamy white and yellow. It is hardy in the milder ...
-Phygelius Capensis
A fine South African perennial, 3 ft. or more high, with pyramidal spikes of drooping tubular scarlet flowers. In the mildest parts of the kingdom it forms a bush or shrub. Fresh stock is secured from...
-Physalis
For many years P. Alkekengi, a European perennial, had -been grown for its red, inflated calices, but it has been completely driven out by the Japanese P. Francheti, the calices of which are two or th...
-Phyteuma (Horned Rampion)
A genus of rock and border plants requiring a mixture of sandy loam and peat or leaf mould, and best increased from seeds. The best kinds are: anthericoides, 9 in., slaty blue; comosum, 3-6 in., blue;...
-Platystemon Californicus
A pretty Californian Poppywort, 1 ft. high, with narrow leaves and long-stalked yellow flowers. It is treated as a hardy or half-hardy annual. ...
-Podophyllum Emodi
A curious Himalayan perennial, 6-12 in. high, with deeply lobed leaves marbled with purple, and white flowers followed by bright coral-red berries. Other kinds are peltatum, 6-12 in., with large poiso...
-Polemonium Coeruleum (Jacob's Ladder)
An easily grown hardy herbaceous perennial, with 6-12 pairs of ovate leaflets that give a Fern-like aspect to the plant. The blue or white flowers appear in summer. There are several varieties, one di...
-Polyanthus (Primula Variabilis)
The Polyanthus as we know it to-day - in primrose and cream and white, sulphur and gold and orange, crimson and red and allied shades - has been gradually evolved from the above-named hybrid, itself t...
-Polygonatum
Besides the Solomon's Seal (see p. 100) there are a few other kinds, such as biflorum, 1-3 ft.; japonicum, 1-2 ft.; latifolium, 2-4 ft.; officinale, 1 ft.; oppositifolium, 2-4 ft.; punctatum, 1-2 ft.;...
-Polygonum (Knotweed)
A large genus of vigorous-growing plants chiefly dealt in by hardy-plant growers. The best-known member of the genus is the beautiful Japanese knotweed (P. cuspidatum or Sieboldi) which grows 6-10 ft....
-Portulaca Grandiflora (Sun Plant)
A beautiful Brazilian plant about 6 in. high, having cylindrical leaves with tufts of hairs in the axils and crimson-purple flowers in crowded clusters. There are several varieties with flowers of dif...
-Potentilla
The garden kinds are now largely grown, and are the progeny of the Himalayan species argyrophylla and nepalensis. They all flourish in ordinary well-drained garden soil, and are increased by division ...
-Primrose (Primula Vulgaris)
The common British Primrose can hardly be said to be cultivated for market, although thousands of bunches of blossom are sold every April. The blooms are picked by countryfolk in the woods and sent up...
-Primula
A large genus of hardy and half - hardy plants, some members of which have been described under separate headings, viz.: the Primrose (P. vulgaris), the Chinese Primrose (P. sinensis), and P. obconica...
-Prunella Grandiflora
A pretty European rock plant, 6-9 in. high, with erect trusses of rich-violet flowers from June to September. There is a white variety, and one (Webbiana) with bright, rosy-purple blooms. They grow in...
-Pulmonaria
This genus has a few good plants, among the best being angustifolia, 1 ft., with pinkish and blue flowers; arvensis, deep blue and white; also officinalis, red turning to violet; saccharata, with spot...
-Pyrethrum, Double- And Single-Flowered
Few hardy border perennials have enjoyed a greater run of popularity than the double- and single-flowered varieties of Pyrethrum roseum. Botanically, however, Pyrethrum is now included under Chrysanth...
-Pyrethrum Aureum
This is the well-known Golden Feather or Feverfew, still grown in hundreds of thousands annually for bedding out and carpet-bedding work. It is valued for the bright golden yellow of its leaves, a...
-P. Parthenium
This is the Common European Feverfew, which grows about 2 ft. high, and has deeply cut, lobed and toothed leaves, and white flowers with yellow centres, in summer. The double variety (flore pleno) is ...
-Ramondia Pyrenaica (Fig. 240)
A pretty Pyrenean perennial with flat rosettes of hairy ovate wrinkled leaves and flattish purple flowers in May and June, on stalks about 4 in. high. There is also a white-flowered variety. Other spe...
-Ranunculus
Of the many species known, only two or three are cultivated occasionally for market. The double-flowered variety of R. aconiti-folius, with pure snow-white flowers popularly known as White Bachelors'...
-Rehmannia Angulata (Elata)
A distinct-looking Chinese perennial, 3-6 ft. high, with somewhat triangular coarsely toothed leaves, and large bright rose-red Foxglove-like flowers drooping from an erect spike, and speckled or blot...
-Rheum (Rhubarb)
There are several species of Rhubarb distinguished for their bold and ornamental foliage and huge plumes of blossom. They all flourish in rich soil, but will do well in almost any garden soil that is ...
-Ricinus Communis (Castor-Oil Plant)
An ornamental tropical plant largely grown as a half-hardy annual for bedding-out purposes during the summer months. The plants are valued for the large, lobed, and ornamental leaves, which assume tin...
-Rochea (Crassula) Falcata
This and R. perfoliata, both with fleshy leaves covered with a glaucous bloom, are often used in carpet bedding as dot plants over a carpeting of dwarfer plants. Raised from cuttings. ...
-Rock Garden And Alpine Plants
The trade in these plants is now enormous. It would be impossible within the scope of this volume to go into details of every species and variety grown for sale, although the most important will be fo...
-Romneya Coulteri
A fine Californian Poppywort, 2-8 ft. high, with deeply cut leaves and large sweet-scented white flowers, 6 in. or more across, from June to September, and with a conspicuous bunch of golden-yellow st...
-Rudbeckia (Cone Flower)
A genus of North American annuals and perennials, vigorous in growth and glowing in colour, the flowers being remarkable for the raised cone-like disk in the centre. They flourish in any good garden s...
-Sagina (Spergula) Pilifera
A pretty tufted moss-like plant from Corsica, with narrow awl-shaped leaves and small white flowers in summer. The variety aurea, with golden-tinted foliage, is popular for carpet bedding. ...
-Salpiglossis Sinuata
This fine Chilian hardy or half-hardy annual has given rise to many choice varieties remarkable for the beautiful colour and veining of their large tubular flowers. The plants usually grow about 2 ft ...
-Sanguinaria Canadensis (Blood Root)
A pretty North American Poppywort, 3-6 in. high, with lobed leaves, and beautiful white flowers in April and May. Easily grown in moist sandy peat, or leaf mould and loam, and propagated by division o...
-Sanvitalia Procumbens
A good Mexican half-hardy annual with trailing stems, and bright-yellow Marguerite-like flowers with a dark-purple disk. The double-flowered form is wholly yellow and more showy. ...
-Saponaria (Soapwort)
A genus of annual and perennial herbs useful for beds, borders, and rockeries. S. calabrica is a fine annual, 6-12 in. high, with rosy flowers. There are several varieties, all easily raised from seed...
-Saxifraga
Of the 160 species known, the only one grown in great quantity for market is the Common London Pride or St. Patrick's Cabbage S. umbrosa), really a native of the Kerry mountains and the Spanish Penin...
-Scabiosa
The plant known as Sweet Scabious or Mournful Widow' is often grown for cut flowers in quantity. It is raised from seeds every year, being an annual, and in July and August produces its flower head...
-Schizanthus
This genus contains several species of hardy or half-hardy annuals, which may be raised like China Asters every year. The best-known kinds are Grahami, 2 ft., with lilac, rose, and yellow flowers; pin...
-Schizocodon Soldanelloides
A pretty little Japanese rock plant, 2-4 in. high, with roundish leaves which turn to a dark purple in winter, and pairs of drooping bell-shaped flowers from March to June, the petals being cut into t...
-Schizopetalon Walkeri
A curious Cruciferous Chilian annual, 1-2 ft. high, with divided leaves, and sweet-scented white flowers having fringed petals. Seeds may be sown in the open air in March and April, or in heat. ...
-Scilla (Squill)
The Scillas are a numerous family, and include the British and Spanish Bluebells (see article on Bluebells). The best-known and most-remunerative species from the bulb merchant's point of view is S....
-Sedum (Stonecrop)
The best-known member of this genus is the Common Stonecrop (8. acre), with small fat leaves and masses of golden-yellow starry flowers. The plant flourishes in any dryish soil, and is largely sold in...
-Sempervivum (Houseleek)
The Houseleeks are an easily grown group of plants with fleshy leaves in dense rosettes, and are valuable for old walls, roofs, rockeries, etc, in dry soil or old mortar rubble. The Common Houseleek (...
-Senecio
The fact that such a troublesome weed as the Common Groundsel (S. vulgaris) belongs to this genus is not in its favour. Still there are several kinds so free in growth and bold in habit, and so useful...
-Shortia Galacifolia (Fig. 244)
A charming North American rock plant, 3-6 in. high, having roundish leaves becoming purple red in winter, and with funnel-shaped flowers in March and April, white shading into rose. The Japanese S. un...
-Sidalcea
A small genus of North American Mallowworts, of which the best known are S. malvoeflora (Callirhoe spicata), 2 3 ft. high, with lobed leaves and erect spikes of lilac or pale-rose flowers 2 in. across...
-Silene Pendula
This is a popular hardy annual, 6-12 in. high, having single- and double-flowered varieties, useful for carpeting the ground over bulbous plants or beneath tali-stemmed kinds. The colours vary from wh...
-Snapdragon (Antirrhinum Majus)
The original species from which the numerous varieties now grown have sprung is indigenous to England, and may frequently be seen growing on old walls or chalk cliffs in various parts of the country. ...
-Solidago (Golden Rod)
Coarse-growing but ornamental perennials with feathery trusses of golden-yellow flowers. They grow anywhere, but prefer sunny places, and may be easily increased by division in spring. There are about...
-Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum Multiflorum)
From a commercial point of view Solomon's Seal must be regarded as among the lesser lights, yet possessing a value of its own in the early forcing department and because of its inimitable and graceful...
-Spigelia Marilandica
A pretty North American perennial, 6-18 in. high, with dense tufts of four-angled stems, ovate Gentian-like leaves, and trusses of tubular flowers of a deep red or crimson outside and yellow within. I...
-Spiraea (Herbaceous)
A great trade is done in herbaceous Spiraeas. They are all easily grown in the open air in ordinary good garden soil, but several of them, like venusta, rose; gigantea (or kamtschatica), white; and lo...
-Stachys Lanata
A popular Caucasian perennial with dense masses of wrinkled, oblong-elliptic leaves covered with silvery-white woolly hairs. It is a very useful plant for borders, and produces its small purplish flow...
-Statice (Sea Lavender)
There are annual and perennial species in this genus, some being perfectly hardy, others somewhat tender. Of the perennial kinds S. latifolia is undoubtedly the best. It has large wavy leathery leaves...
-Stellaria Graminea Aurea
This is a dwarf golden-leaved variety of Chickweed which makes an excellent carpet-bedding or edging plant. It can be cut close, and made to look effective beneath dot plants. ...
-Stock, Ten-Week (Matthiola Annua)
The parent of the Ten-week Stock is a South European annual, 1-2 ft. high, having somewhat hoary lance-shaped leaves, and erect, branching spikes of flower with varying colours. The garden varieties ...
-Stokesia Cyanea
A fine North American perennial, 2 ft. high, with lance-shaped leaves and large lavender-blue flowers in autumn; the variety alba has white flowers. Likes well-manured loamy soil, and may be increased...
-Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus)
The common Sunflower is too coarse a plant for horticultural purposes, although useful enough for producing supplies of valuable seed for agricultural and other purposes. There are, however, many choi...
-Sweet Pea (Lathyrus Odor-Atus)
The Sweet Pea industry is now a very large one, thanks to the grace and beauty of the flowers, the comparative ease with which they may be grown, and the wonderful varieties that patience and skill ha...
-Sweet Sultan
This is botanically known as Centaurea or Amberboa moschata. It is a Persian annual 1-2 ft. high, having deeply and coarsely toothed leaves and large musk-scented heads of purple or white flowers. Th...
-Sweet William (Dianthus Barbatus)
The Sweet William is one of the best known and most admired of hardy garden flowers, having been grown for centuries in English gardens. The present fine race has been evolved from Dianthus barbatus, ...
-Thalictrum
A large genus of plants chiefly remarkable for their elegantly cut foliage and graceful appearance. Although many species varying from 6 in. to 4 ft. high are dealt in by hardy-plantsmen, very few are...
-Thunbergia Alata
A pretty half-hardy South African climber with heart-shaped sagittate leaves, and bell-shaped flowers varying in colour from pure white to pale and deep yellow, orange, and purple with a dark-coloured...
-Thymus (Thyme)
Many kinds of Thyme are grown for rock-garden purposes, among the best being carnosus erectus, 9 in.; the golden and silver forms of citriodorus; ericoefolius, 4 in.; lanuginosus; micans, 2 in.; Serpy...
-Tiarella Cordifolia(Foam Flower)
A pretty North American rock or border plant, with heart-shaped lobed leaves, and feathery sprays of white flowers from April to June. Grows in ordinary soil, and is increased by division. ...
-Tigridia (Tiger Flower)
A genus of handsome bulbous plants from Mexico, having sword-shaped leaves and large flowers gorgeous in colour, white, red, orange, pink, and purple being the chief tints. They like rich sandy soil, ...
-Tradescantia Virginiana (Spiderwort)
A beautiful North American perennial, 1-2 ft. high, with narrow purple-veined leaves and violet-blue flowers on branching stems in summer. There are several varieties, alba, atropurpurea, atroviolacea...
-Tricyrtis Hirta (Toad Lily)
An interesting Japanese plant, 1-3 ft. high, with hairy stems, lance-shaped leaves, and whitish flowers spotted with violet and purple. Other kinds are macropoda and pilosa, very similar. They flower ...
-Trillium (Wood Lily)
The best-known species is grandiflorum, 1 ft. high, with broad leaves in threes, and pure-white flowers in early summer. Other kinds are cemuum, 1 ft., white; erectum, deep purple; erythrocarpum, whi...
-Tritonia
Under the still-better - known name of Mont-bretia two or three species and several varieties of these fine hardy bulbous plants are grown, chiefly for cut flower and for the decoration of the border....
-Trollius (Globe Flower)
Beautiful herbaceous perennials closely related to the Buttercups, and valuable for moist borders, rock gardens, etc, but will also flourish in good rich garden soil. They are increased by division, a...
-Tropaeolum
Under the heading of Nasturtium (see p. 73) some species of Tropaeolum (T. majus and T. minus) have already been described, because they are mostly known under that name. The Canary Creeper is anoth...
-Tulip
Tulips have always been a favourite crop with market growers, and consignments in one form or another have been sent to market regularly during the winter and spring season during the past seventy yea...
-Ursinea Pulchra (Sphenogyne Speciosa)
A pretty Mexican annual with divided leaves, and creamy-yellow Marguerite-like flowers, 2-3 in. across, with a blackish centre. There are several forms of it. Seeds may be sown in spring to produce pl...
-Venidium Calendulaceum
A showy South African composite, 6-12 in. high, with Dandelion-like leaves white beneath, and bright golden-yellow flowers with a blackish centre resembling those of the Common Marigold. This plant, a...
-Veratrum Album (White Hellebore)
A distinct Caucasian plant, 3-5 ft. high, with broad deeply ribbed leaves and erect trusses of white and greenish flowers. V. nigrum and V. viride (Helonias viridis) have purplish and greenish flowers...
-Verbascum (Mullein)
A large group of bold-growing plants as easily grown as Foxgloves, and raised from seeds in most cases. The best kinds include Caledonia, Chaixi,densiflorum, nigrum, olym-picum, pannosum, phlomoides, ...
-Veronica ( Speedwell )
A large genus of hardy and half-hardy herbaceous and shrubby plants differing greatly in appearance and habit. Among the best of the herbaceous group are gentianoides, 1 ft., porcelain blue, with a w...
-Viola
Apart from the florist's Violas and the Sweet Violet there are several natural species grown for rock gardening and borders, among them being the following: biflora, 3 in., yellow, May to June; calcar...
-Violas And Pansies
The name Tufted Pansy has been given to a popular race of plants formerly recognized in catalogues and books as Bedding Violas, and which had their origin in Viola cornuta and one of the older typ...
-Violets
Some years ago Violet growing was a lucrative business in many market gardens in Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey, but the encroachments of the builder have driven the industry farther afield. Violets are ...
-Wahlenbergia Saxicola (New Zealand Bluebell)
A pretty rock plant, 6 in. high, with creeping habit, tufts of spoon-shaped leaves, and drooping white flowers veined with blue from June to September. Other species are dalmatica, graminifolia, Pumil...
-Waitzia Aurea
A pretty Australian annual everlasting, 1-1 ft. high, with rosettes of narrow leaves, and loose clusters of shining golden-yellow flower heads in summer. It is raised from seeds sown in heat in spr...
-Wallflowers (Cheiranthus Cheiri)
The Wallflower, like good wine, needs no bush, and is esteemed for simplicity of culture, though most of all because of its fragrance and adaptability to British gardens. In short, it is one of the ol...
-Water Lily (Nymphaea)
Of all water plants there are none so popular as the hardy Nym-phwas and the many glorious hybrids that have been raised of late years, and of which detailed descriptions will be found in The Bulb Boo...
-Zauschneria Californica (Fig. 255)
A charming Californian perennial, 1-1 ft. high, with narrow lance-shaped leaves and drooping tubular crimson-red flowers in autumn. It may be raised from seeds, cuttings, or division in spring, and i...
-Zea Mays (Maize Or Indian Corn)
An ornamental grass, 3-4 ft. high, with broad, gracefully arching leaves, which are green in the common form, but beautifully variegated in another. The female flowers give rise to the cylindrical or ...
-Zephyranthes (Zephyr Flower)
A genus of Amaryllidaceous bulbous plants from North America and the West Indies, not very extensively grown outside botanic gardens. They require warm sheltered spots in favourable places, and greenh...
-Zinnia Elegans
A fine Mexican half-hardy annual, 1-2 ft. high, with ovate, stem-clasping leaves and single and double flower heads of various colours, such as scarlet, vermilion, crimson, carmine, rose, white, buff,...
-Section XIII. Stove And Greenhouse Plants And Flowers. Abutilon
Though well-flowered, well-furnished plants sell readily, it is, generally speaking, as cut flowers that Abutilons are most remunerative. The plants are readily raised from cuttings kept close and in ...
-Acacia
Of this extensive genus only a very few are available for market culture, as the majority of them must attain tree-like dimensions before they flower well. A case in point is furnished by A. dealbata,...
-Acalypha
These are cultivated chiefly for their ornamental foliage, and are now becoming fairly popular for producing sub-tropical effects during the summer months. The leaves resemble those of large limes or ...
-Achimenes
These were more extensively grown some years ago than at present, but there is still a large demand for them for the decoration of conservatories, etc. The numerous hybrid varieties are far superior t...
-Agapanthus Umbellatus
This well-known fleshy-rooted African plant is almost hardy, and is usually grown in tubs in any garden soil out-of - doors during the summer, and protected in greenhouses or sheds during the winter. ...
-Agathaea Coelestis
A pretty South African Composite, known as the Blue Marguerite, owing to its blue aster- or daisylike heads of blossom. It flourishes in a loamy soil with a little sand and leaf mould, and may be ra...
-Agave
The American Aloe or Century Plant (A. americana) is well known as a decorative subject in large tubs for outdoor decoration in summer, the variegated form with rich creamy-yellow stripes being most p...
-Ageratum Mexicanum
This dwarf Mexican Composite is valued for bedding out in summer, and is easily raised from seeds sown early in spring or from cuttings. The fluffy flower-heads vary from pale to very deep blue, but t...
-Allamanda
Splendid South American trailing plants with smooth leaves and tubular bell-shaped yellow flowers. The best-known kinds are Hendersoni and grandiflora, the former having very large blooms. Others are ...
-Alocasia
These plants are chiefly valuable for their large, coloured, and variegated leaves, some as much as a yard from top to bottom, and are more or less oval triangular in shape with a deep sinus at the ba...
-Aloe
Out of nearly 100 species only a few are grown in any quantity - the most popular being the South African A. variegata, the well-known partridge-breasted Aloe. The stout leaves 6-8 in. long are deep...
-Aloysia (Lippia) Citriodora
This is the well-known lemon-scented Verbena, a native of Chili. It is a shrubby plant with pale-green lance-shaped leaves remarkable for their deliciously fragrant scent. It was at one time grown in ...
-Alpinia Vittata
A Gingerwort from the South Sea Islands having stems about a yard high furnished with pale-green lance-shaped leaves striped with creamy white. Small specimens are likely to sell best. They require wa...
-Alternanthera
This is one of the most useful and popular carpet-bedding plants. It forms a dense carpet of coloured foliage and may be clipped and pinched without injury during the season to keep it in order. Thous...
-Anthurium
Anthuriums, like Alocasias, are chiefly grown for their ornamental foliage, some of the best kinds for this purpose being crystal-linum, magnificum, Warocqueanum, and Veitchi - the latter being remark...
-Aralia
A mixed genus of stove, greenhouse, and hardy ornamental-leaved plants of a more or less shrubby habit when fully grown. The best-known stove kinds are A. elegantissima, A. Guilfoylei, A. Veitchi and ...
-Araucaria Excelsa (Norfolk Island Pine)
This is certainly the most graceful of all the Araucarias, and although it attains a height of 100 ft. and more in its native habitat, it is admirably adapted for pot culture in a small state, and tho...
-Ardisia Crenulata
A pretty evergreen West Indian plant likely to become popular as a winter-berried plant. It makes a compact bushy plant in 5-i.n. and 6-in. pots, and grows freely in sandy loam and leaf mould in a sto...
-Aristolochia Elegans
A handsome climber with creamy-white flowers heavily blotched with purple. It grows freely in a warm greenhouse and is almost hardy in the mildest parts. Raised from seeds or cuttings. There are many ...
-Arum Lilies Or Callas
Under these names Richardia aethiopica or R. africana is best known to the trade. It is a tuberous-rooted plant, 2-3 ft. high, with large green broadly arrow-shaped leaves, and is highly esteemed as a...
-Asparagus
There are many species of Asparagus, but the most valuable for market purposes are the feathery A. plumosus and its flat variety nanus; A. Sprengeri and A. medeoloides. The latter is far better known ...
-Aspidistra (Parlour Palm)
The green-leaved and variegated form of A. lurida are ever-popular market plants, specimens in 5-in. and 6-in. pots realizing from 20s. to 30s. per dozen - the variegated forms, in which the leaves ar...
-Azalea Indica
Although cultivated by the Dutch as long ago as 1680, this species, which covers every hill and mountain in Central and Southern China, was only taken seriously in hand by nurserymen about eighty year...
-Balsams
Under this name many fine strains of Impatiens Balsamina were cultivated some years ago in thousands for market, and were chiefly valued for summer bedding out. The Balsam, being an annual, is raised ...
-Begonia
There are now three or four distinct classes of Begonia, namely the tuberous-rooted, the fibrous-rooted, the winter-flowering, the ornamental-leaved or Rex varieties, and several species and hybrids. ...
-Begonia. Part 2
Fibrous-Rooted Begonias Of these the most remarkable is Gloire de Lorraine and its many varieties, which are now grown in hundreds of thousands not only in the British Islands but on the Continent an...
-Begonia. Part 3
Bedding Begonias Quite distinct from the Tuberous and Lorraine Begonias a large trade is done in early summer in certain fibrous-rooted kinds, one of the principal being known as semper-florens. Ther...
-Bertolonia
Pretty dwarf foliage plants recognized by their deeply ribbed leaves, often conspicuously spotted with distinct colours and washed with tints of various hues. Some good kinds are argentea, guttata, ma...
-Bignonia
A genus of stove and greenhouse climbers with showy tubular flowers. They are rampant in growth, like a peaty soil, and are increased by cuttings of the young half-ripened shoots. The stove kinds incl...
-Boronia
A genus of Heath - like plants with narrow leaves and cup-shaped flowers. They are natives of Australia, and prefer cool greenhouse treatment. A peaty soil with a little sand suits them best, and wate...
-Bougainvillea
There are several species, natives of tropical and subtropical America, the best known being glabra, speciosa, Sanderiana, and spectabilis - all remarkable for the large and conspicuous rosy-mauve bra...
-Bouvardia
Some few years ago Bouvardias were grown in very large numbers for market, some growers disposing of as many as 20,000 to 30,000 plants annually. Owing to competition from other plants, however, Bouva...
-Bromeliads
Although a fairly large trade is done in these plants on the Continent, for some reason or another they have never become popular in British gardens. Here and there, outside botanical establishments, ...
-Brunfelsia (Francisea)
A small trade is done in these shrubby plants with evergreen leathery leaves and flattish blue or purple flowers. The best-known kind is B. calycina, of which there are many garden forms, including ex...
-Cacti
For market purposes small specimens are chiefly grown in pots varying from 1 - 3 in.; larger specimens, if required, may usually be picked out from among the stock plants. A stock of varieties is eas...
-Cacti. Continued
Cereus Atropurpureus, Baumanni, candicans, geometrizans, grandiflorus, flagelliformis, marginatus, nycticalus, peruvianus and vars., paraguayensis, speciosissimus, Schickendantsi, Seidelli, Spachianu...
-Caladium
A genus of tuberous-rooted Aroids from Tropical America, remarkable for their broadly arrow-shaped leaves of membranous texture, often brightly coloured and veined, and varying in size from a few inch...
-Calathea
A genus of stove plants closely related to the Marantas, and like them having ornamentally variegated leaves. They like a compost of sandy loam and peat, and are increased by division. ...
-Calceolaria
The Shrubby Calceolarias - said to be descendants of the Chilian G. rugosa - are almost hardy in the milder parts of the kingdom, and during the summer months at least they are used in thousands for b...
-Herbaceous Calceolarias
These large-leaved plants are derived from G. arachnoidea, C. corymbosa, and C. crenatiflora - all natives of Chili. The progeny of these plants are remarkable for their large and gorgeously coloured ...
-Camellia
The trade in Camellias is not nearly so extensive as in former years, although one or two nurserymen still make a brave show of flowering plants during the winter season. At one time growers for marke...
-Canna (Indian Shot)
The trade in these plants has increased enormously during recent years, and there are many exquisite garden hybrids used for the decoration of the garden during the summer,and also for the conservator...
-Capsicum
Varieties of C. annuum with yellow fruits, and of C. minimum with crimson fruits are grown for decorative purposes. The seeds are sown in heat in February or March, and soon germinate. The seedlings a...
-Carnations, Perpetual Flowering
These love an airy, light position, and will not stand coddling. This is one of the principal points which has to be remembered always to ensure success. Above all things commence with a vigorous heal...
-Carnations, Perpetual Flowering. Continued
Final Stopping The final stopping should be done when the plants are in the flowering pots, not later than the end of June. With quick-growing varieties the middle of July, however, will be late enou...
-Diseases And Pests
These are sometimes troublesome, and here, as in other cases, the grower will find that prevention is better than cure. A light weekly spraying with one of the commercial nicotine solutions will be ...
-Carnivorous Plants
A somewhat restricted trade is done by a few specialists in these plants, which are usually grown in cool houses, and in a compost of peat and sphagnum moss. The best-known kinds are Darling-tonia cal...
-Carpet-Bedding Plants
Notwithstanding the onslaughts made on carpet bedding, a large trade is still done in plants used for this particular style of gardening, and so long as a demand exists, growers will always respond. T...
-Celosia Cristata (Cockscomb)
This East Indian annual is still popular in many places, and is grown either for greenhouse decoration or for planting out during the summer months. Seeds are sown in heat in February or March, the yo...
-Cestrum (Habrothamnus)
A genus with a few species of climbing greenhouse shrubs, easily grown in sandy loam, and raised from cuttings. The best kinds are aurantiacum, with golden-yellow tubular flowers; elegans, with red fl...
-Chrysanthemums
These are now grown in such enormous quantities for the various markets, that to be successful it is necessary for the grower to keep his selection strictly up to date, and to neglect no detail in his...
-Final Potting
For the final potting, 16's (9 in.) and 12's (10 in.) pots are used, about 1 in. of crocks being laid over the holes. First place soil in the bottom, ramming it firmly, then put the plant on top, plac...
-Summer Quarters
The plants must now be set out in their summer quarters as soon as possible, the incurveds and the finer-rooted varieties being given the warmest and driest positions. Well-sharpened hazel sticks, 5...
-Housing
This is usually started the second or third week in September. If possible, all houses should have sulphur burnt in them before the Chrysanthemums go in, and should be thoroughly dry. Overcrowding sho...
-Housing. Part 2
For Insects One 60 pot XL All to 2 gal. of water. For Bust Boil 8 lb. soft soap and 4 lb. Lifebuoy or other hard soap, and stir in as much paraffin as it will take - usually about 1 pt. Use about ...
-Housing. Part 3
For Disbudding Sunshine and Mercedes (yellow); White Countess, J. B. Scott (white); Mrs. Beech, N. Blake, Le Pactole (bronze); Madame A. Nonin, Cranford Pink, Lenz (pink). [p. A. c] ...
-Cineraria
Not so very many years ago the only Cinerarias in general cultivation were the members of the florist's section, that is to say, those of short sturdy growth and massive heads of large flowers. Now th...
-Cissus
A genus of free-growing stove climbers (now included in the genus Vitis), remarkable for their handsome foliage. C. discolor has velvety-purple leaves marbled with white and shaded with pink, and is p...
-Clivia
A genus of South African Amaryllids, still well known as Imantophyllums. They have strong deep-green strap-shaped leaves, and throw up large heads of showy bell-shaped or tubular flowers somewhat like...
-Coleus
There are now innumerable garden forms of Coleus, all being derived from C. Blumei (fig. 273), a native of Java. Fancy names have been given to many of them, but as new varieties are so easily raised ...
-Cordyline
Among plants grown for the beauty of their foliage the Cordylines are very popular, and large numbers are disposed of for decorative purposes. Although nearly all of them are by botanists placed in th...
-Coronilla Glauca
A pretty leguminous little shrub with blue-green leaves and sweet-scented yellow flowers like a Cytisus. It was much grown at one time for greenhouse decoration, flourishing in loam and peat. Raised f...
-Cotyledon Or Echeveria
For many years G. secunda and its variety glauca have been popular market plants, and are used extensively in connection with carpet bedding and for finishing up the edges of raised flower beds. Plant...
-Crinum
A large genus of bulbous plants from tropical and subtropical parts of the world, having large strap-like leaves and bell-shaped flowers borne in umbels on top of stout fleshy scapes. The tropical spe...
-Croton (Codiaeum)
All the garden Crotons are descended from C. variegatum (also called C. pictum), a native of the Molucca Islands, but now more or less naturalized all over the eastern tropics. The original species is...
-Cuphea Ignea (Platycentra). (Cigar Plant)
A bushy little Mexican plant with reddish stems, lance-shaped leaves, and scarlet cylindrical flowers resembling miniature cigars with ashy tips. It is much used for bedding out in summer and is raise...
-Curculigo Recurvata
An ornamental Palm-like plant from the East Indies, with broad green plaited arching leaves. There are two varieties, namely striata, having a white band down the centre, and variegata, which has fine...
-Cyanophyllum Magnificum
A fine stove plant with large ovate deeply ribbed leaves of velvety texture, rich olive green above, purple red beneath. It likes peat and loam, and is increased by cuttings. ...
-Cycads
Outside botanic gardens and a few private collections Cy-cadaceous plants are rarely seen in British gardens. On the Continent, however, specimens are more commonly met with. As market plants they are...
-Cyclamen Latifolium
This is much better known in gardens as C. persicum, or the Persian Cyclamen. It has been in cultivation for nearly two hundred years, and in that time vast improvements have been made by selection an...
-Cyperus Alternifolius
This is still grown, but not in such large numbers as formerly. It is a native of Madagascar and has erect green stems with whorls of flattish bright-green leaves, which are narrower in the variety ri...
-Cytisus Racemosus (Or Fragrans)
Popularly known as Genista in the trade, this charming Leguminous plant from the Canary Islands has for many years been cultivated in thousands by market growers as a winter-flowering shrub. Plants ...
-Datura (Brugmansia)
A genus of herbaceous and shrubby plants, the latter being perhaps best known as Brugmansia. They are used for subtropical effects in summer bedding. The annual kinds are easily raised from seeds so...
-Desmodium Gyrans (Telegraph Plant)
This stove plant is grown as a curiosity, its narrow oblong leaves being constantly in motion up and down, like the arms of a semaphore. It flourishes in a loamy soil, and is raised from seeds. ...
-Dieffenbachia
A genus of ornamental Aroids easily grown in loam in the stove, and raised by cuttings. Some of the best kinds are Bausei, Fournieri, Jenmani, Leonice, picta, Rex, Shuttleworthi, nobilis, etc. ...
-Dipladenia
A genus of stove climbers requiring a peaty soil and raised by cuttings. D. amabilis is a well-known hybrid with purple-crimson flowers; D. Brearleyana, rich crimson; D. atropurpurea (fig. 278), crims...
-Dracaena
The coloured-leaved Dracaenas are exceedingly numerous, and as table plants they are much admired. They are essentially stove plants, and need considerable care in their culture, as the loss of a sing...
-Echites
The best-known kinds are argyrea, with silvery veins; nutans, red veined; and rubro - venosa, similar. They are stove climbers, liking peaty soil, and are raised by cuttings. ...
-Epacris
A genus of pretty Australian Heath-like plants requiring greenhouse treatment, and a compost of sandy peat. The long narrow tubular flowers droop from the shoots in profusion, and are deep crimson, wh...
-Episcea (Cyrtodeira)
Pretty stove trailing plants with bright-red flowers, the best being chontalensis, fulgida, and metallica maculata. They make nice basket plants, and like peaty soil. Raised from cuttings. ...
-Erythrina
These are handsome Leguminous plants with large Laburnum-like leaves and bright-red Pea-like flowers. They flourish in rich loamy soil, and are raised from seeds and cuttings. E. Crista-galli, from Br...
-Eucalyptus
A very large genus of Australian trees, some of which are the tallest in the world, 400-500 ft. high. The best-known kinds are globulus, the Blue Gum Tree, with large grey-green leaves. It is easily...
-Eucharis Grandiflora (Amazonica)
This fine Colombian bulbous plant is still valued as a market crop. It flourishes in rich and rather heavy loam with a little well-decayed manure or leaf mould and sand. Stove treatment is necessary, ...
-Eupatorium
These are easily grown Composites with Ageratum-like flowers, white or reddish purple. They are raised from cuttings in spring, and require greenhouse treatment in winter. The best kinds are atroruben...
-Eurya Latifolia Variegata
A beautiful Japanese greenhouse shrub of the Camellia family, with oblong lance-shaped leaves variegated with creamy yellow. As it can only be raised from cuttings of the young shoots, and is not a pa...
-Exacum Macranthum
Lovely stove Gentianworts, mostly from Ceylon, are raised from seeds or cuttings, and flourish in a mixture of sandy peat and loam. The best kinds are afftne, bluish lilac; Forbesi, deep blue; macrant...
-Ficus Elastica (Indiarubber Plant)
This is still largely grown for market. The large elliptic glossy-green leathery leaves constitute the chief ornamental feature, and when coupled with the fact that the plants will stand almost as rou...
-Freesia
The most generally useful kind for market work is F. re-fracta alba, which has almost pure-white tubular blossoms borne in graceful trusses during the winter season. The cut flowers are largely used b...
-Freesias From Seeds
The Freesia is one of the few bulbous plants that is not only easily raised from seed but comes into blossom well within a year after the seeds are sown. Seedling varieties are now becoming popular. I...
-Fuchsia
As market plants Fuchsias are always held in great esteem, and are grown in large numbers in pots and also in a small state in boxes to supply the street trade. Thousands are raised from cuttings annu...
-Gardenia
These are generally grown to supply cut flowers, which at all times, but especially during the winter and early spring months, are in considerable demand. Plants are readily struck from cuttings, take...
-Gesnera
A large genus of hairy-leaved plants, many with tuberous roots, and closely related to Gloxinia. The tubular flowers are glowing scarlet or orange in colour, and droop from branched stems. There are n...
-Gloxinia (Or Sinningia)
Popular stove or greenhouse tuberous plants with hairy fleshy leaves, large tubular flowers with exquisite shades of colour and variously blotched and speckled. They are easily raised from seeds sown ...
-Grevillea Robusta
This graceful Fern-like Australian plant is largely grown for market. It is raised from seeds sown in heat in February or March in pots or shallow boxes in sandy soil. The young plants soon appear, an...
-Heaths Or Ericas
Many thousands of Heaths are sold annually during the winter season, the demand apparently being as great now as ever. At one time no Heath was ever sent to market in any pot smaller than a 5-in. one ...
-Heliconia
A genus of fine foliage stove plants, with large Canna-like leaves, all flourishing in rich loamy soil with plenty heat and moisture. The best kinds are aureo-striata, green veined with yellow; illust...
-Heliotrope (Cherry Pie)
As a market plant the Heliotrope (Helio-tropium peruvianum) has long been popular, and is still grown on fairly large lines for bedding-out purposes in summer. Early in the year cuttings of the young ...
-Helxine Soleirolia
A curious Urticaceous plant, with slender stems and small roundish bright-green leaves produced in such density as to make a pretty evergreen carpet in the greenhouse border, or when grown in pots. It...
-Hippeastrum (Fig. 282)
The garden varieties, still known under the name of Amaryllis, have been evolved from the South American species H. vitattum, H. Reginoe, H. par-dinum, and U. Leopoldi, by crossing and intercrossing d...
-Humea Elegans
An Australian biennial with large leaves and erect graceful plumes of drooping small pinkish flowers, which emit a peculiar odour. Increased from seeds, and sold in a small state in boxes or pots in s...
-Hydrangea
A genus of ornamental shrubs with deeply veined leaves and large trusses of flowers, which are sometimes all sterile and sometimes sterile and fertile together. H. Hortensia and H. paniculata are larg...
-Impatiens
Perhaps the Balsam (see p. 133) is the best-known member of this genus, but there are a few other species worthy of note, especially I. Sultani and I. Hawkeri - both lovely bushy plants with bright-re...
-Iresine
Effective South American plants much valued for massing in beds and borders in summer, I. Herbsti with roundish purple and crimson leaves, and its variety aureo-reticulata with yellow-veined leaves, a...
-Isolepis Gracilis
This pretty little grass-like Sedge from Australia has long been cultivated for the ornamentation of greenhouses and for decorative work. It grows readily in any ordinary good open compost, and is inc...
-Ixora
These are fine tropical stove shrubs with glowing bright orange-scarlet or yellow flowers in dense heads often nearly 1 ft. across in macrothyrsa (Duffi) which has crimson blooms. Some of the best kin...
-Jacobinia (Justicia)
Stove plants, easily grown in sandy loam and peat, and very ornamental when in bloom. The best kinds are chryso-stephana, yellow; coccinea, scarlet; magnifica, red, with varieties carnea and Pohliana;...
-Juniperus Bermudiana (Barbados, Pencil, Or Bermuda Cedar)
This ornamental Conifer is largely grown by some for decorative work, and plants may be had in pots from 5-in. sizes and upwards to specimens 8-10 ft. high. They are pyramidal in habit and feathery in...
-Kalosanthes (Crassula) Coccinea
This South African plant was cultivated extensively some years ago, and is still grown by a few under its old name of Crassula. It has erect fleshy stems and ovate triangular-fleshy leaves arranged cr...
-Kleinia
Two kinds - K. repens, with cylindrical fleshy blue - green leaves; and K. tomentosa, with larger spindle - shaped leaves covered with silvery down - are often used for carpet bedding. They are propag...
-Lachenalia Nelsoni (Fig. 283)
Of the many species and varieties of Lachenalia known, this is the most likely to attract the commercial grower. It is a magnificent hybrid between L. tricolor (fig. 284) and L. aurea, and produces fo...
-Lantana
These showy plants with Heliotrope - like flowers are much used for bedding-out purposes during the summer months. They are easily raised from cuttings in spring, inserted in sandy soil in a close fra...
-Lapageria
Lovely Chilian plants, remarkable for their long trailing woody stems, smooth glossy-green ovate three-nerved leaves, and large drooping bell-shaped flowers, which are bright rose in L. rosea and waxy...
-Leucophytum (Calocephalus) Browni
A distinct-looking stick-like Composite of branching habit, much favoured of late years for carpet bedding on account of its silvery appearance. It is propagated by cuttings in spring. ...
-Lilium. Lilium Candidum, Lilium Lancifolium (or Speciosum), and Lilium Longiflorum
Although a more or less thriving and increasing trade is done by bulb merchants and nurserymen in the bulbs of a large number of species of Lilium, market growers confine their attentions practically ...
-Lobelia
The Bedding Lobelia is a cultivated form of L. Erinus, a native of South Africa. It is grown in hundreds of thousands in small pots, pans, or shallow boxes each year, and is a very popular plant for t...
-Marguerites
The Marguerite, or Paris Daisy, is a form of Chrysan-themum (or Pyrethrum) frutescens, and grows wild as a shrubby perennial in the Canary Islands. It may be raised from seeds sown in February and Mar...
-Mesembryanthemum (Fig Marigold)
Out of some 300 species only a few are grown largely. The most popular is the variegated form of M. cordifolium, which has small heart-shaped leaves bordered with creamy white, and bears masses of bri...
-Musk (Mimulus Moscliatus)
This is not grown so largely for market now as in years gone by, although there are still a few of the older growers who continue to raise a stock year after year, either from freshly sown seeds or fr...
-Nerine
At present the trade done in Nerines is confined to bulb merchants and Channel Island growers, but there is a possibility that these plants may figure more prominently in the markets in the future. Th...
-Nerium Oleander
This handsome evergreen shrub is sold occasionally in a small state. It has narrow leaves and single- and double-flowered forms white, pink, or red in colour. Raised from cuttings in sandy loam, and g...
-Ophiopogon Jaburan Variegata
A pretty Japanese plant with narrow strap-like leaves longitudinally banded with creamy-white or yellow bands. At one time it was grown freely for market, and is still grown by several for its ornamen...
-Orchids
A score of years ago any suggestion that Orchids might be worthy of consideration as subjects for the skill of the market grower would have been met with scorn. But the speed with which matters hortic...
-Orchids. Continued
Comparatively few Orchids like direct bright sunshine, though they like good light. The houses should therefore be in a light open position, but well provided with blinds. Established Cattleyas and La...
-Palms
Of the four or five hundred species of Palms known in cultivation but very few have attracted the attention of the market grower. Although nearly all kinds are ornamental in foliage and graceful in ha...
-Areca
There are several species, but A. (Chrysalidocarpus) lutescens, from Madagascar, is the most popular. It has slender yellowish-green stems and gracefully pinnate leaves. Once established it will thriv...
-Cocos
Of the thirty species known, only two are favoured for market, viz. C. Weddelliana and C. plumosa. The first-named is grown in thousands from seeds, and has been a favourite for many years owing to it...
-Geonoma Gracilis
This small-growing Palm from Costa Rica is grown in fairly large quantities by some, but it is considered too slow in growth and therefore too costly by others. It resembles Cocos Weddelliana in appea...
-Kentia
The two species, Belmoreana and Fosteriana, both from Lord Howe's Island, are more correctly known to botanists under the name of Howea. Thirty years ago they were unknown to market-men, but now the...
-Livistona
The Palms popularly known under the names of Corypha and Latania really belong to this genus. The well-known Fan Palm, L. chinensis (which is still better known in commercial circles as Latania bo...
-Phoenix
The Date Palm (P. dactylifera) belongs to this genus, but is not a marketable plant. The most valuable species for growers are P. Roebeleni and P. rupicola, both graceful plants with rigid midribs to ...
-Rhapis
Both R. humilis and R. flabelliformis, both natives of China, are useful Palms for decorative purposes, although they do not figure largely as market plants, except occasionally as small specimens. Th...
-Seaforthia Elegans
A very graceful and useful Australian Palm, now known more correctly as Archontophoenix Cunninghami. The arching leaves remind one of the Howeas (Kentias), but are not so glossy or so deep in colour. ...
-Pandanus (Screw Pine)
There are many species, but the one most favoured by market growers is P. Veitchi, a lovely plant from the South Sea Islands, with elegant glossy-green leaves striped with white. It flourishes in a ri...
-Panicum Variegatum (Oplismenus Burmanni)
A charming Grass, from Tropical Asia, with tufts of trailing stems and leaves striped with pink and white. P. plicatum is much more compact in growth, and has long lance-shaped leaves strongly veined ...
-Pelargonium
Under this title there are four distinct kinds of plants grown for market, viz.: (1) Zonal Pelargoniums (including green-leaved, silver-leaved, bronze-leaved, and tricolor-leaved varieties); (2) Ivy-l...
-Pelargonium. Part 2
White-Flowered Snowdrop, White Vesuvius, Snowdon, Albion, White Princess, White Perfection, Queen of the Whites, International, Queen of the Belgians. Pink-Flowered Master Christine, Mrs. Turner, M...
-Pelargonium. Part 3
Show, Decorative, And Fancy Pelargoniums The Show and Decorative Pelargoniums have been evolved from P. cucullatum and P. grandiflorum, and the Fancy kinds have probably had a similar origin. T...
-Petunia
The garden Petunias have originated from two South American species, namely P. nyctaginiflora and P. violacca, the first hybrid between them having flowered in 1837. Since then vast strides have been ...
-Plumbag'O Capensis
A well-known South African climbing shrub having pale-blue flowers in the type, and also a white variety. Flourishes in sandy loam and is increased from cuttings. ...
-Poinsettia (Euphorbia) Pulcherrima
For many years this brilliant-looking Mexican Spurgewort has been a favourite in the market during the winter months, not because of the beauty of its flowers, which are small and yellow, but because ...
-Primula Obconica
Notwithstanding the reputation this species has of causing eczema, it is still largely grown for market and in private establishments. It is one of the most free-flowering Primulas in cultivation, and...
-Primula Sinensis
From this has originated the florist's Chinese Primula, which for many years has been a favourite with market growers. Fig. 297 shows the loose and graceful habit of the typical' species, which of lat...
-Rhododendrons, Greenhouse
The trade in these plants is practically confined to a few nurserymen, and many fine hybrids have been raised by crossing species from the Malayan and Javanese Regions With R. Mul-Ticolor From Sumatra...
-Saintpaulia Ionantha
This curious little African Gesnerad is gradually attracting attention owing to its compact habit with small fleshy Gloxinia-like leaves, and deep- or light-blue Violet-like flowers, which have given ...
-Salvia (Sage)
Out of some 450 species of Sage there are only two or three species largely grown for decorative work. S. splendens is a Brazilian plant, 2-3 ft. high, remarkable for its brilliant scarlet flowers, wh...
-Sanchezia Nobilis
An ornamental foliage plant, from tropical America, with large deep-green leaves having the mid-rib and main veins bright yellow. Flowers tubular, yellow. Requires loamy soil, and is raised from cutti...
-Solanum
Of the many species known, S. capsicastrum, from Brazil, is the market grower's plant par excellence. Before and after Christmas it figures conspicuously on the grower's stands, the brilliant scarlet ...
-Sparmannia Africana
An ornamental shrub with hairy leaves and trusses of white flowers. Small plants are best for greenhouse work. Grown in loam and raised from cuttings. ...
-Spiraea Japonica
This plant is really not a Spiraea at all, but nothing will make the market grower call it anything else. Its proper name is Hoteia japonica. Hundreds of thousands of plants are grown under glass for ...
-Stephanotis Floribunda
A strong-growing woody climber from Madagascar, having thickish elliptic leaves, and masses of highly fragrant waxy-white tubular flowers. Almost every grower of flowers for market or florist work at ...
-Streptocarpus
The beautiful garden forms (fig. 301) have arisen by the crossing and intercrossing of such species as S. Dunni, S. Rexi, and S. parviflora, the two first hybrids being known as Kewensis (S. Dunni x S...
-Streptosolen Jamesoni
A climbing Colombian plant with large heads of orange-scarlet flowers. Often used for bedding out in summer. It is increased from cuttings and flourishes in loam. ...
-Strobilanthes
The best species is Dyerianus, remarkable in a young state for the beautiful appearance of its large broadly lance-shaped leaves which are washed with a mixture of crimson, steel blue, and purple. It ...
-Swainsona Coronillifolia (Galegifolia)
The typical form of this Australian Leguminous climber has long racemes of bright-red flowers, but the white-flowered form is more valuable commercially. It is useful for cutting and also for bedding ...
-Tecoma
The yellow-flowered T. Smithi (fig. 302), and the orange - scarlet T. capensis are climbing shrubs usually raised from cuttings in sandy loam and peat. Fig. 302. - Tecoma Smithi. ...
-Trachelium Coeruleum
This bushy South European perennial, although nearly hardy, is usually grown as a cool greenhouse pot plant. It has ovate, deeply-toothed leaves, and masses of small violet - blue flowers. There is a ...
-Tradescantia Zebrina (Ze-Brina Pendula)
A well-known Mexican plant with fleshy trailing stems and oval-oblong leaves, purple beneath, but striped with greenish-white above. There is a fine form having the leaves striped with yellowish-white...
-Tuberose (Polianthes Tuberosa)
Tuberoses were grown more extensively a few years ago than they are at the present day. They were very popular with florists, and thousands of bulbs were imported annually for forcing during the winte...
-Vallota Purpurea (Scarborough Lily)
A fine South African greenhouse bulbous plant with evergreen strap-shaped leaves, and bright scarlet tubular flowers in summer topping a fleshy stem 2 to 3 ft. high. It likes sandy loam and leaf soil,...
-Verbena
The garden Verbena has been evolved from several species, and is largely used for the decoration of flower beds and borders during the summer months. There are many varieties and strains, including He...
-Wigandia Caracasana (Macrophylla)
A fine foliage plant about 10 ft. high from the mountains of New Granada, with large elliptic heart-shaped leaves covered with softish hairs and of a ruddy brown tint. It is chiefty useful for subtrop...
-Section XIV. Ferns. 1. The Life-History Of Ferns
The life-cycle of flowering plants, which may be shortly stated as seed, plant, flower, and seed again, is simple enough to be popularly understood; but that of the Ferns is so much more complicated, ...
-Section XIV. Ferns. 1. The Life-History Of Ferns. Part 2
Fig. 306. - A Young Prothallus arising from a Spore. Fig. 307. - Young Fern Plant. p, Prothallium; rh, rhizoid; r, root. Fig. 308. - Underside of Prothallus of Fern. ap, Apex; r, rhizoids...
-Section XIV. Ferns. 1. The Life-History Of Ferns. Part 3
Having studied Ferns in their incipient stages, and also in their past relations, we may now proceed to some practical considerations regarding culture and propagation. To the selective cultivator, an...
-Section XIV. Ferns. 1. The Life-History Of Ferns. Part 4
There are, however, potentialities in some Ferns which are entirely latent, and can only be rendered effective artificially. The Hartstongue, of which there are so many beautiful forms, some of which,...
-Soil
This is of great importance to Fern-growers not only on account of its character, but also of its cost. The best growers have to buy in hundreds of tons of top-spit or loamy soil, and this is stacked ...
-Sowing Fern Spores
To secure spores the fertile fronds of any particular species or variety are picked off the plants and placed in thin paper bags and labelled. The bags are hung up in some dry warm spot, and in due co...
-Pricking Off
As soon as the first little true frond or two are seen above the thin semi-translucent prothallus (see p. 213) the young Ferns will be ready for pricking out. For this purpose 5-in. pots, or shallow c...
-Insect Pests, Etc
Generally speaking thrips and aphides are the worst enemies of Ferns, but they can be kept in check by the use of nicotine, soft-soap, and quassia solutions being freely applied when necessary; or by ...
-3. Kinds Of Ferns. Aerostichum
A large genus of Tropical Ferns, few of which are grown in any large quantity. There is great variation in the shape of the fronds, but all agree in having the spore clusters spread over the surface o...
-Actiniopteris
The best-known member of this genus is A. radiata, a distinct and pretty little Tropical Fern easily recognized by its fan-shaped fronds being cut into numerous radiating narrow segments. The variety ...
-Adiantum (Maidenhair Fern)
A very popular genus recognized by roundish or linear sori (i.e. clusters of spores) arranged on the edges of the pinnules or leaflets, forked veins with free veinlets, and usually black shining stems...
-Alsophila
A genus of ornamental tree Ferns from temperate and tropical regions, chiefly valuable for the decoration of large conservatories, etc, where plenty of space is available. Amongst the best-known kinds...
-Anemia
This genus is recognized by having the sterile branches once, twice, or thrice pinnately divided, the two lower side branches being erect and spore-bearing, and quite distinct from the other fronds. T...
-Angiopteris Evecta
This is a remarkable Fern from the Old World Tropics, having twice or thrice pinnate fronds 6-15 ft. long, and gracefully spreading. It requires stove treatment; but owing to its great size is only me...
-Aspidium (Shield Fern)
A very large genus, now including Cyrto-mium and Polystichum, and having representatives in the tropical and temperate regions. A. (Polystichum) aculeatum is a well-known species called the Hard or P...
-A. (Cyrtomium) Falcatum
This is the Holly Fern of the market grower. It is found widely distributed in Japan, China, the Himalayas, Madagascar, the Sandwich Islands, and South Africa. It is grown in thousands for market, a...
-A. (Lastrea) Aristatum Variegatum
A beautiful greenhouse Fern from the East Indies, Assam, etc, often known under the name of Lastrea. It is largely grown for market, and is an excellent plant for winter work. The shining-green, thric...
-Asplenium
A genus containing three hundred or more species from all parts of the world. They are characterized by having linear or oblong sori on the under surfaces or near the margins of the fronds, and the ve...
-Blechnum
A genus of handsome low-growing tree Ferns closely related to and resembling the Lomarias, from which, however, they may be distinguished by having the spore clusters in lines parallel with and usuall...
-Brainea Insignis
A pretty Chinese tree Fern with salmon-tinted young fronds. In a small state it is worth growing, but it is at present practically unknown to marketmen. The same may be said of other Fern genera, like...
-Cheilanthes
A large genus of ornamental Ferns with gracefully cut fronds. The spore clusters are roundish, and situate near the ends of the free veins. The only species of market value is G. elegans, the Lace Fer...
-Davallia (Hare's Foot Fern)
The Davallias are graceful Ferns with creeping hairy rhizomes, bearing some fancied resemblance to a hare's foot. The spore clusters are marginal and the veins free. Of the large number of species com...
-Dicksonia (Cibotium) Schiedei
This is a Mexican tree Fern 10-15 ft. high when full grown. It is an excellent Fern, and sells by the thousand in America. It has not yet caught on with British growers, but its elegant character is...
-Doodia Aspera Multifida
A pretty Australian Fern, compact in growth, chiefly valuable for the charming rosy tints on the young fronds. When full grown the fronds are 6-12 in. long and pinnatifid, but young plants in 3-in. po...
-Doryopteris Palmata (Ivy-Leaf Fern)
A Tropical American Fern, also known as Pteris, having palmate fronds 4-9 in. long divided into narrow dark-green segments. Although ornamental and easily grown, this species and a variety called gera...
-Gymnogramme (Gold And Silver Ferns)
This genus contains handsome Ferns, with naked and narrow clusters of spores and free-forked veins. Some of the kinds have the under surface of the fronds densely covered with a white floury powder, o...
-Hemionitis
There are several species in this genus, recognized by the spore clusters being continuous along the copiously netted veins, and also sometimes developed slightly between them. The best market kinds a...
-Lomaria
This genus is closely related to Blechnum, but is distinguished from it by having the spore clusters on the margins instead of parallel with or contiguous to the midrib. The best market kinds are L. g...
-Lygodium
This genus contains the elegant Snake's Tongue or Climbing Ferns, recognized by their climbing stems, conjugate, palmate, pinnate or pinnatifid fronds, forked free veins, extending beyond the marg...
-Nephrodium (Including Lastrea)
A very large genus midway between the Aspidiums on one hand and the Nephrolepis and Polypodiums on the other. Representatives are to be found in all parts of the world, and are characterized by having...
-Nephrolepis
The members of this genus are popularly known as Ladder Ferns or Fishbone Ferns, chiefly from the shape of the fronds of N. exaltata, the best-known and still most generally useful species. The pl...
-Onychium Japonicum
This is a free-growing little Fern, native of Japan, China, North India, etc, having mature fronds 1 ft. or more long, ovate in shape, and four times divided into numerous segments. Plants for market ...
-Osmunda
A small genus of Ferns remarkable for their distinct appearance and for having the spore clusters borne on separate fronds. The Flowering Fern or Royal Fern (0. regalis) is the best-known species,...
-Pellaea
A small genus with pinnate or twice-pinnate fronds more or less leathery in texture, having free venation, marginal sori, with the edges of the pinnae in some species bent back to form a spurious in-d...
-Polypodium
A large and variable genus, now including Phegopteris, Goniopteris, Phymatodes, Drynaria, and other submerged genera. The most characteristic feature of the Polypodies consists in the roundish spore c...
-Pteris
A large genus characterized by having the spore clusters borne in a continuous line along the margins of the pinnae. Of the many species and varieties the market kind par excellence is Pteris cretica ...
-Scolopendrium
The best-known member of the genus, and the one having the greatest commercial value, is the common Hart's Tongue Fern (S. vulgare). The typical species is found growing wild in the copses and hedgeba...
-Selaginella
Although belonging to a quite different family (the Lycopodiaceae), the Selaginellas are popularly regarded as Ferns, and are culturally treated as such. There are over 300 species known, one - S. spi...
-Todea Africana (Or T. Barbara)
A bold and ornamental South African Fern having a thickish bolelike stem and twice-pinnate fronds, 3-6 ft. long, with serrated pinnae, and dense masses of reddish-brown spore clusters. It makes a comp...
-Woodsia
A genus of dwarf tufted ferns with pinnate fronds and roundish clusters of spore cases. They may be grown in the same way as the Hart's Tongue Ferns, in moist and shaded spots. The best-known kinds ar...
-Woodwardia
A genus with half a dozen species of ornamental Ferns having large twice-pinnate fronds, and linear sori sunk in the cavities of the fronds in single rows parallel with and contiguous to the midribs o...
-Filmy Ferns
This name has been applied to various species belonging to the genera Hymenophyllum, Todea, and Trichomanes. Owing to the peculiar atmospheric conditions necessary for their successful culture, Filmy ...









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