This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol3", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
The borders having been made ready, the planting is the next thing to consider. Planting is done in the autumn or early spring, two-year-old canes being used for the purpose. These are planted at 1 ft. from the wall, holes being prepared about 3 in. deep and wide enough to take all the roots when carefully shaken out and spread fanwise over the border. The soil is carefully spread over the roots and well firmed down. If nicely moist no water need be given, but if the soil has got dry while waiting for the canes they must be watered in. The distance apart at which the canes must be planted will depend upon the variety, in the first place, and on the number of rods it is proposed to take from each Vine. Strong growers, like "Alicante" and "Muscat of Alexandria", will require 3 ft. between the rods, while " Black Hambro" will do with 2 ft. 6 in. Some growers only allow 2 ft. between the rods, but this is scarcely enough if the Vines are to grow well and last any time. There is no doubt that the Vine does best and lasts longest when grown on the " extension system"; but in market houses it is the rule to limit the Vines to two rods each, and very often only one rod is allowed. One large grower in the north of London district, who is famous for Canon Hall Muscats, allows up to seven or eight rods to a Vine for that particular variety at any rate, believing that the plants are healthier grown that way. Very fine fruit is grown on the single-rod system, and in Worthing it is the usual practice. However, where a tank comes a Vine is very often seen with three or more rods, and no appreciable difference in the fruit can be noticed. Roof space can be covered more quickly by the single-rod system; but as Tomatoes are grown under the Vines till the roof is covered it amounts to the same thing in the end. If more than two rods are to be grown, temporary single-rod Vines can be planted to fill up the space until it is wanted for the permanent Vines. In the case of double-rod Vines the two rods are trained up at the same time, but if more are to be grown two would be started first and the others taken from their bases afterwards. These remarks apply to the planting of wide houses. In the case of the 15-ft. houses, at least two rods should be allowed to each Vine, as the roof space is so small.