These insects, especially the former, have been the cause of much devastation in fruit plantations. A year or two ago some fruit plantations in Middlesex could be seen in which the Apple trees in June were as denuded of foliage by these insects as they were by nature in the winter. It is to catch the moths of these insects that the grease bands, now such a familiar sight round the trees in fruit plantations in the autumn and winter are put. The female moth, being wingless, climbs up the trunk of the tree in autumn, after emerging from the chrysalis stage, in order to lay her eggs on the twigs, so that the little black progeny may have food close at hand in spring; she is thus caught in the grease, and her maternal intention frustrated. Spraying in the spring with a tonic spray is also recommended as part of the armoury against this pest (tig. 342). [W. G. L.]

Mottled Umber Moth (Hybernia defoliaria).

Fig. 341. - Mottled Umber Moth (Hybernia defoliaria).

1, Male moth. 2, Female moth. 3, Caterpillar (natural size).

March Moth.

Fig. 342. - March Moth.

1, Winged male. 2, Wingless female. 3, Band of eggs.