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Commercial Gardening Vol3| by John Weathers (the Editor)



Commercial Fruit Growing. Diseases Of Fruit Caused By Fungi. Grading And Packing Fruit. Pip Fruits: Apples, Pears, Quinces, Medlars. Apples. Stone Fruits: Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots. Plums. Figs. Grapes. Nuts. Melons. Garden Surveying, Levelling, And Mensuration. Market-Garden Accounts.

TitleCommercial Gardening Vol3
AuthorJohn Weathers (the Editor)
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1913
Copyright1913, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonCommercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners

A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners, Market Growers & Fruit Flower & Vegetable Growers, Nurserymen, Etc.

By Many Practical Specialists Under The Editorship Of John Weathers, Author of "A Practical Guide to Garden Plants" "French Market Gardening" "The Bulb Book" etc.

In Four Volumes

Fully Illustrated

-Section XV. Commercial Fruit Growing. I. Introductory
The change that has come over the public estimate of fruit and vegetable growing for market is great enough to make one who remembers things that were rub his eyes in astonishment. Has it come to t...
-2. Site For A Fruit Garden
Having secured capital, or arranged for its supply, whither shall the intending grower direct his steps in order to secure a suitable site? He will find certain districts where fruit growing seems mor...
-2. Site For A Fruit Garden. Continued
Analysis Soil Dried At 212 F Loss on ignition... 5.68 per cent. Silicates...... 86.10,, Phosphoric acid... 06,, Oxides............... ...
-3. Rent, Rates, And Taxes
He who would hire land for market gardening or fruit growing must expect to pay more rent than is the rate for farm land in the same district. First, because he will require a smaller scope of land th...
-4. The Conditions Of The Holding
It goes without saying that the best condition of all is to secure the freehold of the land; then all those influences resulting from a cultivator's energy, which go to improve the value of the holdin...
-4. The Conditions Of The Holding. Part 2
A very important case is that of Redwell v. Flint, which has been decided in the Court of Appeal. This was a case which came up from the County Court of Canterbury. An umpire called in by two valuers,...
-4. The Conditions Of The Holding. Part 3
Landowners themselves are also endeavouring to find a way out of the difficulty. One such, who desires to encourage fruit growers on his estate, has devised a form of agreement which he says has cost ...
-5. Preparation Of The Land For Fruit Trees
Having selected the site and concluded a contract of tenancy for the holding, the next consideration is the preparation of the land for planting the fruit. The first thing is to get the land clean. He...
-5. Preparation Of The Land For Fruit Trees. Part 3
(A) The Crab This is nothing more than the Wild Apple, the parent from which, through careful selection and patient observation and application of the beneficent laws of the Creator, all our many var...
-5. Preparation Of The Land For Fruit Trees. Part 4
Rabbits and hares are a great nuisance, causing much damage to Apple and Pear trees. They do not seem to attack Plums or Cherries so much. By biting the bark as high as they can reach, in frosty weath...
-Section XVI. Fruit Growing In Worcestershire
South Worcestershire at the present time probably is unequalled for the extent of commercial gardening in proportion to the total area of land comprised within a radius of 10 ml. of Evesham - which is...
-Apples
The greater durability of the Apple is causing it to displace in some degree the more quickly perishable Plum; and it is estimated that about 3000 ac. of land are now mainly occupied with young Apple ...
-Strawberries
These are an important crop in the southern part of the county. It is estimated that there are about 2000 ac. of Strawberries grown in this large district; but it is difficult to obtain an approximate...
-Loganberries
The demand for this fruit is not yet great, and the supply corresponds. A few are grown at Evesham and Pershore. These are trained to lightly strained horizontal wires, the top wire being about 6 ft. ...
-Fruit Growing" In The Valley Of The Teme
The Teme valley is probably the most beautiful part of the county of Worcester as well as one of the most fertile in England. It is roughly 20 miles in length and varies from a few hundred yards to a ...
-Section XVII. Commercial Fruit Growing In Scotland
The cultivation of tree fruit has not developed much in Scotland for a long time. Nearly forty years ago there were 1874 ac. Now there are 2108 ac. The cultivation of small fruit, however, has been gr...
-Fruit Districts
Fruit is grown to a limited extent in almost every county from Caithness to Wigtown, but the bulk of the fruit is grown in the counties of Fife, Midlothian, Haddington, Aberdeen, Forfar, Lanark, and P...
-Lanarkshire
The fruit-growing counties mentioned are insignificant when compared with the two great fruit-growing counties of Scotland - Lanarkshire and Perthshire. It will be seen from the foregoing figures that...
-Perthshire
The greatest fruit-growing county, however, is Perthshire. It had long to take a second place; but it has been steadily pulling up on Lanarkshire, and has now definitely taken the lead. There are 3037...
-Essendy
I must point out, however, that the Blairgowrie tonnage is greatly increased by the fruit grown at Essendy. In 1902 the estate of Drumellie and Essendy, extending to 450 ac, situated 3 ml. west from B...
-Alyth
The fame of the Essendy experiment in fruit culture soon spread to other parts of the county. Alyth, a village about 5 ml. to the east of Blairgowrie, became the centre of the Raspberry industry in th...
-Couparangus
Coupar-Angus, 4f ml. to the south of Blairgowrie, became the centre of another Raspberry district. The holdings in the Coupar-Angus district are on an average somewhat larger than the holdings in the ...
-Auchterarder
The fruit trade was still fairly prosperous in 1907, with no apparent sign of over-production. In that year an extensive scheme was launched in west Perthshire. The farm of Shinafoot, extending to 80 ...
-Overproduction
The abnormal development of small-fruit culture in Scotland has had a disastrous effect on the fruit industry. The prices obtained during the years 1908, 1909, and 1910 were not sufficient to meet the...
-Conjunction Of Industries
Another change, not less important, has been brought about by the depression in the trade. Fruit growers are not so much inclined now as formerly to have all their eggs in one basket, and, while there...
-Section XVIII. Fruit Growing In Ireland
Although Ireland is not at present a fruit-growing country in the same sense that England is, there are great possibilities in store for it under better management. The climate on the whole is much be...
-Section XVIII. Fruit Growing In Ireland. Continued
The man who plants tall standards in a grass orchard, and then wants to make a decent living out of it, will have a long time to wait. It is often pointed out that in Canada standard trees planted i...
-Section XIX. Diseases Of Fruit Caused By Fungi. I. General
It may be stated at the outset that the various preventive or remedial measures suggested in this article are only intended for use against parasitic fungi, and would not answer for insects, or in man...
-2. Fungicides And Spraying
The term fungicide is given to various substances used, in solution or in the form of a powder, for the purpose of killing fungi that are injurious to cultivated plants. Unfortunately the idea of a fu...
-Bordeaux Mixture
This fungicide consists of a mixture of sulphate of copper (bluestone), quicklime, and water in the following proportions: - Sulphate of copper ... ... ... 16 lb. Quicklime ............ 11 ...
-Self-Boiled Lime-Sulphur Mixture
It is well known that Bordeaux mixture cannot be used for spraying Peach trees, because, even when diluted beyond the point of being of any value as a fungicide, it yet scorches and destroys the folia...
-Sulphide Of Potassium Solution
Sulphide of potassium, or liver of sulphur, is an excellent fungicide for use against the superficial mildews, as Apple-tree mildew, Rose mildew, Hop mildew, etc. It is of especial use in checking t...
-Winter Spraying
Where disease has previously existed it is often advisable to spray during the winter months, when vegetation is in a dormant condition. Under such circumstances a much stronger solution can be used w...
-Gumming
This exceedingly common, yet ill - understood disease attacks Plums, Cherries, Peaches, in fact all the Pruneae, or trees bearing stone fruit, suffer. Small drops or tears of gum first show on the...
-3. Smudging
What has been called Smudging is an exceedingly inelegant name for the process of preventing damage to the fruit crop through frost in early spring by means of a smother of smoke, or by maintaining ...
-Section XX. Grading And Packing Fruit
The grading and packing of fruit, it may be said without fear of contradiction, are becoming more important matters for the grower every year. No one who takes a walk round any fruit market during th...
-Section XXI. Pip Fruits: Apples, Pears, Quinces, Medlars. Apples. I. General
The Apple is far and away the most important of hardy fruits grown by market gardeners in the British Islands. Originally springing from the Wild Crab Apple (Pyrus Malus), fig. 329, it has undergone s...
-Area Under Cultivation
From the statistics published by the Board of Agriculture in England, and the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction in Ireland, it appears that, out of a total of 77,836,769 ac, about 17...
-2. Apples And Mixed Crops
Very rarely indeed are Apples grown alone. They are usually under-cropped with Gooseberries, Currants, or Raspberries, and sometimes entirely with vegetable crops like Rhubarb. The above diagram (fig....
-Standard Apples And Rhubarb
The next diagram (fig. 331) represents a market garden in which Standard Apples and Rhubarb constitute the only crops. The Apple trees are planted 18 ft. apart every way, thus giving about 134 trees t...
-Overcrowding
In many old market gardens it is not unusual to see trees so closely crowded together that one wonders how anything like a remunerative crop of fruit can be secured from them. In many cases the fault...
-3. Storing Apples
The hard and later-ripening varieties of Apples lend themselves well for storing. In many market gardens neither sufficient care nor attention is given to picking the fruit carefully, and storing it p...
-4. The Best Varieties Of Apples To Plant
The varieties enumerated in a nurseryman's catalogue are bewildering in their diversity. When the doubles of varieties, which are to all intents and purposes synonymous in character, are eliminated ...
-5. Culinary Apples
Early Victoria Or Emneth Early This is the earliest apple to be fit to gather - it was cleared in 1910 before the first of August. The fruit is conical and shapely, with a clear skin and set singly o...
-5. Culinary Apples. Part 2
Stirling Castle This is an Apple that makes it its business to crop, and scarcely thinks about anything else. It can be thinned as early as the middle of August. If left to mature, the fruit attains...
-5. Culinary Apples. Part 3
Pott's Seedling' This Apple is a horticultural analogy to a man with a big intellect set on a sickly body. As a fruit it is admirable - solid, shapely, of good size and quality. The tree when first ...
-6. Dessert Apples
The case of the dessert apples is quite different from that of the culinary varieties just considered. Most culinary apples in highest favour with the public are green in colour. For some reason or ot...
-6. Dessert Apples. Part 2
Worcester Pearmain This valuable market apple is degraded to the culinary class by Mr. Wise; Mr. Bunyard, however, gives it a seat in the upper house. It is said that the name Pearmain is a contra...
-6. Dessert Apples. Part 3
King- Of The Pippins This is a favourite old apple. It should be gathered about Michaelmas, and may be fit to send to market a little before Cox's Orange. It will not pay for the sorting and selectin...
-7. Insect Pests
A considerable part of the expenses incurred in the maintenance of the plantation will be those incident to the combating of insect and fungoid pests. Judging by the number of specifics that have quit...
-Winter Moth (Cheimatobia Brumata)
This moth, in its caterpillar state (fig. 340), attacks the foliage and even fruit not only of apple, but also of such other fruit as pear, plum, currant, gooseberry, nuts, and raspberry. The Winter M...
-Other Moths With Wingless Females
Several other moths have wingless females, and may be prevented in the same way. The more important are: 1. The Mottled Umber Moth (Hybemia defoliaria), which is larger than the Winter Moth, and the f...
-The Maggots Of The Winter And March Moths
These insects, especially the former, have been the cause of much devastation in fruit plantations. A year or two ago some fruit plantations in Middlesex could be seen in which the Apple trees in June...
-The Brown-Tail Moth (Euproctis Chrysorrhoea)
Common now and .again in Britain, then suddenly disappears. It is a satiny-white moth, with a dusky spot on each hind wing about 1 to 1 1/4 in. across the wings. The white abdomen in both sexes has a ...
-Lackey Moth (Clisiocampa Neustria)
Large tents of silk are frequently seen on Apple and Pear trees, on Hawthorn hedges, etc, often 1 ft. in length. These are the houses of the Lackey Moth caterpillars (fig. 343), which now and then oc...
-The Codlin Moth (Carpocapsa Pomonella)
The so-called Codlin Maggot is the larva of the moth known as Carpocapsa pomonella.. It often causes endless damage in Apple orchards all over the world, but seems to be now on the decline in Britain....
-Pith Moths (Blantodacna Vinolentella And B. Hellerella)
Small dull-red caterpillars are often found in the centre of the stalk of the trusses of Apple blossom, and even in the leaf spurs. These larvae cause the shoots to flag , and then gradually turn b...
-Apple-Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Pomorum)
This small weevil, which is only 1/6 in. long, is the cause of very serious loss to Apple growers. It occurs in Kent, Surrey, Cambridgeshire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, etc. It is the cause of so-...
-Apple Sawfly (Hoplocampa Testudinea)
This Sawfly larva is very frequent in apples, and is often mistaken for the Codlin Maggot. It can be told from the latter by having more than four pairs of sucker feet, and by its eating out larger ch...
-Mussel Scale (Lepidosaphces Ulmi)
This scale insect or Coccid (tig. 345) resembles a miniature mussel shell in form, about to 1/8 in. long in the female and brown in colour, closely applied to the bark of the stem and twigs and...
-The Woolly Aphis (Sckizoneura Lanigera)
This Aphis (fig. 346) forms a large quantity of white floc-culent wool from its back. It lives mainly on the bark of the trunk, branches, and finer shoots of the Apple, but now and again on Pear, and ...
-Apple Aphides
At least three species of Aphis attack the Apple: (1) the Leaf-curling Aphis (Aphis pomi); (2) the Rose Leaf-curler (Aphis sorbi); and (3) the Green-shoot Aphis (Aphis fitchii). The former is by far ...
-Apple Sucker (Psylla Mail)
This insect (fig. 347) is found in most Apple orchards in Great Britain and Ireland, and is frequently the cause of much damage. It is one of the sucking-mouthed insects belonging to the Hemiptera. Th...
-Other Apple Pests
A very large number of other insects attack the Apple, including the following more abundant ones: The Gold Tail Moth (Porthesia similis); the Figure-of-8 Moth (Diloba cceruleocephala); Pepper-and-sal...
-8. Fungoid Diseases Of The Apple. Apple Scab (Venturia Inwqualis)
This is undoubtedly the most injurious fungus parasite attacking the Apple, and unfortunately it abounds wherever the Apple is cultivated. It is estimated that the annual loss due to spotted fruit c...
-Brown Fruit Rot (Sclerotinia Fructigena)
This is undoubtedly the commonest and most generally distributed of diseases attacking plants belonging to the family Rosaceae, to which the majority of our orchard fruit trees belong. Until recently ...
-Apple Rot (Glomurella Rufo-Macwlans)
This disease is by no means new nor rare amongst us, although until recently the fungus concerned in its production was known as Glceosporium fructigenum. The last-named, however, is now known to be o...
-Apple-Tree Canker (Nectria Ditissima)
This disease is much more prevalent now than in past times; reasons for this will be given later. As a rule it is popularly believed that canker is the result of a tree growing under unfavourable con...
-Heartwood Rot Of Apple Tree (Polyporus Hispidus)
Not infrequently large, bracket-shaped fungi may be seen growing out of the trunk or branches. These fungi are more or less semicircular in outline, and vary from 4 to 8 in. across. The upper surface ...
-Bitter-Pit Of Apples
This disease appears to be prevalent wherever the Apple is cultivated. The symptoms are: the presence of scattered brown or rust-coloured spots in the flesh of the apple, more especially towards the c...
-Apple-Tree Mildew (Sphcerotheca Mali, Magnus)
This disease is caused by one of the superficial mildews, related to the Hop Mildew, American Gooseberry Mildew, etc. It is widely distributed in this country, and probably exists wherever the Apple i...
-Pears. 1. General
The garden Pear has originated from Pyrus communis, a native of Britain and the temperate parts of Europe and Asia, and is therefore a perfectly hardy fruit. Like its cousin, the Apple, it has undergo...
-Pears On Walls
In many market gardens there are either walls or fences that may be, and are, utilized for the cultivation of some of the choicer or more tender varieties of Pears. The trees may be trained on the wal...
-Pear Cultivation For Market
The Pear may be taken to be a much less important item in the market fruit plantation than either the Apple or the Plum. It has not become so generally accepted as a food, and still is regarded somewh...
-Pear Stocks
The planter of Pears has the choice of two stocks upon which they may be budded or grafted, namely, the Pear and the Quince. On the former the many fine specimens of Pear trees seen in old gardens hav...
-Pear Pruning
When a plantation is first started, pruning seems such an easy matter - and to any gardener with the right spirit within him it is an attractive and interesting occupation, calling as it does into exe...
-A Plea For Co-Operation
This introduces one of the most difficult questions of market-garden politics, indeed of agriculture generally. The old race of farmers, from which the ranks of market gardeners have hitherto been pri...
-2. Pears To Grow For Market
As in the case of Apples, the list of Pears in the catalogue of a nurseryman is bewildering in the number of varieties offered. The market gardener growing Pears wants the earliest he can get, and sho...
-2. Pears To Grow For Market. Part 2
Beurre Capiaumont A profuse bearer. As the tree is of upright growth it should be planted at the end of rows where a roadway is left, where a drooping or spreading tree would be injured by the passin...
-2. Pears To Grow For Market. Part 3
Catillac (Fig. 354) For a stewing variety this is one of the best. It grows to a great size; needs keeping till Christmas, but keeps well. Fruit very large, flatly top-shaped, at first pale green, be...
-2. Pears To Grow For Market. Part 4
Beurre D'Amanlis A very prolific useful and early variety. Fruit large, pyriform, green and reddish brown. Juicy, sweet, and perfumed. In season in September. Fig. 356.-Pear. Easter Beurre. (1/...
-3. Insect Pests And Diseases. Slugworm Of Pear And Cherry (Eriocampa Limacina)
The repulsive slug-like larvae are frequently seen on the foliage of Pear and Cherry. They are bottle green in colour and covered with a slimy matter above; beneath they are paler, and the anterior re...
-The Pear-Leaf Blister Moth (Cemiostoma Scitella)
The larvae of this small moth form circular brown blisters on Pear and sometimes Apple leaves. The moth appears at the end of April and May, and again in July and August. The moth has leaden-grey fore...
-Pear Midge (Diplosis Pyrivora)
This small fly, which belongs to the family Cecidomyiadae, causes very great loss by its maggots destroying the young pears. Although it has been known for many years it has increased enormously of la...
-The Pear-Leaf Blister Mite (Eriophyes Pyri)
This acarus is related to the mite causing the Big Bud in the Black Currants, but it lives in a different way. The mite is the cause of the numerous pale blister-like galls one frequently sees on Pea...
-Other Pear Pests
The Wood Leopard (Zeuzera pyrina), Goat Moth (Cossusligniperda), Lackey Moth (Clisiocampa neustria), Vapourer Motli (Orgyia antiqua), Winter Moth (Ckeimatobia brumata), Mottled Winter Moth (Rybernia d...
-Pear Scab (Venturiapirina)
The account given under Apple Scab applies to Pear Scab, so far as the general appearance of the fungus and preventive methods are concerned. When the fruit is scabbed, deep, gaping cracks usually a...
-Quinces
The Quince (Cydonia vulgaris), although often met with as an ornamental tree, is little grown as a fruit crop, a few specimens being found here and there in the older market gardens. The trees come in...
-Medlars
The Medlar (Mespilus germanica) is more of an ornamental than a fruit tree, but its fruits sometimes find their way to market. It flourishes in any good garden soil of a rich loamy character, and the ...
-Section XXII. Stone Fruits: Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots. Plums. I. General
Next to the Apple the Plum is the most important fruit crop in the British Islands. According to the most recent returns of the Board of Agriculture (1911) about 17,000 ac. are devoted to the industry...
-Plum Stocks
There are several stocks (the commonest of which stocks are the Mussel and the Brussel Plum) upon which Plums are grafted or budded, and experience has shown the nurseryman which stock to use, for...
-2. Varieties Of Plum To Plant
Rivers's Early Prolific - This is a most valuable Plurn where it will crop. At Sawbridgeworth, where it was raised, it seems to crop regularly. It is early - coming in at the end of July - and though ...
-3. Plum Pests And Diseases. The Red Maggot Of Plums (Opadia Funebrana)
One frequently finds a reddish larva in plums and gages when ripe. This is the caterpillar stage of a small moth called the Plum-fruit Moth (Opadia funebrana). The moth (fig. 364) appears in June and ...
-The Plum-Fruit Sawfly (Hoplocampa Fulvicornis)
Plum fruitlets are often attacked by the larvae of a sawfly in the same manner as the Apple. The infested fruitlets have small holes in them, and so can readily be seen. As long as the maggot is prese...
-The Leaf-Curling: Plum Aphis (Aphis Pruni)
The curling of Plum leaves by Aphis is often very severe, and causes the leaves to fall prematurely. The green Aphides which cause this disease are found protected in the curled leaves, where they pro...
-The Mealy Plum Aphis (Hyalopterus Pruni)
This Aphis forms a mealy mass under the Plum leaves but does not curl thern up. This Mealy Aphis appears on the Plums in June and July. It comes from rushes and reeds, being the same as Hyalopterus ar...
-The Shot-Hole Borer (Xyleborus Dispar)
The Shot-hole Borer is a small beetle about 1/8 in. long, of a dark-brown to black colour, with reddish-brown wing cases. The female commences her attack by boring into the main stem of fruit trees, b...
-Other Plum Pests
Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), Mottled Umber Moth (Hybernia defoliaria), Early Moth (H. rupicapraria), March Moth (Anisopteryx wscularia), Figure-of-8 Moth (Diloba cairuleocephala), Goat Moth (Cos...
-Damsons And Bullaces
Damson This is a kind of small plum, a cultivated form of Prunus insititia, from which the Bullace is also derived. It is distinguished by oval and not roundish fruits, of a deep blackish-violet colo...
-Plum Insect Pests
Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), March Moth (Anisopteryx cescularia), Yellow Leaf Hopper (Chlorita viridula), Plum-fruit Sawfly (Hoplocampa fulvicornis), the Hop Damson Aphis (Phorodon humuli, var. ...
-Cherries. I. General
The modern Cherry has been evolved from two more or less distinct species of Wild Cherry, both natives of the British Islands, and also found across Europe to the Himalayas. One species - the Prunus C...
-Acreage Under Cherries
According to the returns of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries (1911), there are about 12,000 ac. of Cherry land in Great Britain. No figures appear to be available for Ireland, and there are prob...
-Planting Cherries
The first consideration with regard to planting is the selection and purchase of trees. It must be remembered that the initial cost of the trees bears a trifling proportion to the other expenses of Ch...
-Management Of Cherry Orchards
The management of the orchard subsequent to planting depends to a certain extent upon whether the land is arable or pasture. If the trees are planted in a hop garden, as is frequently the case in Kent...
-Cherry Picking And Marketing
Picking usually commences towards the end of June, when the early cherries are ripe, and continues with the later varieties until the end of July. The gathering is done sometimes by men and sometimes ...
-Cherry Varieties
In considering cherries that are grown commercially, no attempt has been made to mention all the varieties; a few of the better known have been mentioned and their characteristics described. For the ...
-3. Cost Of Cherry Production And Marketing - Receipts
It is comparatively easy to estimate the average animal cost of production upon an acre of Cherries; but, like all other fruit crops, Cherries are subject to such large fluctuations in yield from year...
-4. Diseases And Pests Of The Cherry. Cherry-Leaf Scorch (Gnomonia Erythrostoma)
This disease is the cause of considerable loss both in this country and on the Continent. The symptoms are very marked, and cannot be confounded with those produced by any other known disease. The lea...
-Winter Moth Caterpillar
In former years the damage done by this caterpillar to Cherries and other fruit trees has been enormous. Its life-history is now well known, and as this is fully described at p. 76, as well as the gre...
-Birds
Under this heading of Cherry Diseases and Pests, the birds that prey upon the ripe fruit must be included. The worst offenders in this respect are Blackbirds, Missel Thrushes, Song Thrushes, and Starl...
-Peaches And Nectarines. I. General
The Peach and Nectarine are both forms of Prunus or Amygdalus Persica, or Persica vulgaris, the wild form of which is supposed to be of Asiatic origin. The chief difference between the Peach and Necta...
-Nectarines
All the cultural remarks for Peaches apply to this fruit too. One Nectarine will be planted to about four Peaches. Good Nectarines to plant are Early Rivers (very prolific), Cardinal, and Lord ...
-Peaches And Nectarines Under Glass
Peaches and Nectarines are grown in many places under glass as a market crop. Of course these fruits are nearly always to be found in large private gardens, from which the surplus produce often compet...
-Peaches And Nectarines In Pots
Although nurserymen and private gardeners grow these fruits in pots or tubs, the practice has not yet been adopted by market growers to any extent. There is no reason, however, why it should not be, e...
-Varieties Of Peaches
The following are some of the best Peaches: - Alexander Fruit large, round, somewhat flattened, greenish white on shaded side, very dark-red where exposed to the sun; good flavour. The best of the e...
-Varieties Of Peaches. Continued
Noblesse Fruit large, globular, depressed on the summit, sometimes rather pointed; pale-yellowish green, streaked and blotched red on the side next the sun; rich and excellent. Early September. Ospr...
-3. Fungoid Diseases Of The Peach Tree. Peach-Leaf Curl (Exoascus Deformans)
This very destructive disease is present wherever the Peach tree is cultivated. The foliage and the young shoots are the parts affected. Diseased leaves are thicker than healthy ones, and are very muc...
-Peach Mildew (Podosphcera Oxyacanthce)
This destructive mildew attacks Apple, Peach, Quince, Cherry, and various other fruit trees belonging to the Rose family, but the Peach suffers most, as the fruit is so frequently attacked. When the f...
-"Die-Back" Of Peach Shoots (Ncemaspora Crocea)
Practically everyone concerned in the cultivation of plants has grasped the fact that fungi can cause diseases. This mostly accounts for the statement repeatedly made, that diseases are much more prev...
-4. Peach Insect Pests
The Peach Scale (Lecanium Persicce) This is usually found on peaches under glass, but now and then occurs out-of-doors. It also occurs on Apricot, Nectarine, and Vine, rarely on Plum. The adult fema...
-Apricots
It may safely be affirmed that this fruit deserves more attention from growers who have walls than it has hitherto received. That there is a demand for it on the English market is evident from the lar...
-Gooseberries
The Gooseberry is a first cousin of the Currant, and belongs to the same genus. It is derived from Ribes Grossularia, a spiny-stemmed shrub indigenous to the north of England, but also found in Europe...
-Gooseberries. Continued
Lancashire Lad A red berry when ripe, of elongated shape and medium size. The bush does not grow to a great size. It is useful either for green or ripe picking. Whinham's Industry A berry very much...
-3. Insect Pests Of The Gooseberry. Gooseberry And Currant Sawfly (Nematus Ribesii)
Gooseberries, and sometimes Currants, are attacked by Sawfly larvae. The commonest of these is Nematus ribesii (fig. 373). Sawfly larvae are easily told by the number of their legs, there being six jo...
-The Gooseberry Red Spider (Bryobia Nobilis)
The Red Spider of the Gooseberry is frequently very harmful. It is distinct from others we find on Ivy, and Apple, and Peach. This acarid attacks the buds and young leaves, stunts their growth, and pr...
-Other Gooseberry Pests
The Currant Clearwing (aeaegeria tipuli-formis), Magpie Moth {Abraxas grossulariata), Dot Moth (Mamestra per-sicarice), Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), Clay-coloured Weevil (Otiorhynchus picipes), ...
-4. Diseases Of The Gooseberry. American Gooseberry Mildew (Sphairotheca Mors-Uvce)
I first announced the occurrence of this dreadful parasite in Europe in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 25 August 1900 (fig. 374). The specimens were sent by Mr. (now Sir) F. Moore, F.L.S., and were obtaine...
-European Gooseberry Mildew (Microsphcera Grossularice)
This is a white superficial mildew, appearing on the leaves, and sometimes - but rarely - passing on to the fruit. It grows on both surfaces of the leaf, and forms a very thin film which remains perma...
-Gooseberry Collar Rot (Sclerotinia Fuckeliana)
This is a very destructive and widely diffused disease, but with prompt attention can readily be detected and checked in its career. Gooseberries are most frequently attacked, although Black- and Red-...
-Gooseberry- And Currant-Leaf Spot (Pseudopeziza Ribis = Glceosporium Ribis)
This disease is very prevalent on the leaves of both Gooseberries and Currants, but is generally neglected, as its significance is mostly unknown to growers, or it is mistaken for the work of green ...
-Black Knot (Plowrightia Ribesice)
This disease is met with most frequently on Gooseberry bushes, although it sometimes occurs also on Black- and Red-currant bushes. The first indication that something is going wrong is the wilting or ...
-Currants. 1. General
The three principal kinds of cultivated Currants have been derived from two distinct species, both natives of the British Islands, but also found in a wild state in Europe, temperate Asia, and North A...
-Red Currants
These form a very important item in the bush fruit of a market garden. The variety of uses to which the fruit is put gives it a wide range of usefulness and occasions a demand for it in large quantiti...
-White Currants
There is very little demand for this fruit. Near a large centre a few punnets of selected fruit can be disposed of at good prices for table purposes, but a few bushes at the end of a row would produce...
-Black Currants
This is a much more important item in the fruit garden than either Red or White Currants; its uses, both for culinary and medicinal purposes, ensure for it a wide demand, although the ravages of the ...
-2. Diseases And Pests Of Currants. Magpie Or Currant Moth (Abraxas Grossulariata)
A large Geometer Moth (fig. 376), 1 1/4 in. across the wings, creamy white, spotted with black and some yellow on wings and body. Appears in August and September, and lays yellow eggs on the Currant, ...
-Currant Shoot And Fruit Moth (Incurvaria Capitella)
A small Tineid Moth which lays her eggs in the immature Currant fruitlets, usually two in each. These turn to small larvae which feed in the seed and cause premature ripening of the fruit. When quite ...
-Big Bud (Eriophyes Ribis, Nalepa)
The dreaded Big Bud in Black Currants is caused by small mites known as Eriophyes ribis, formerly Phytoptus ribis. (See Vol. I., p. 180, for figures of this and other Currant pests.) Fig. 376....
-Other Currant Pests
The Currant Clearwing (aegeria tipuli-formis), Winter Moth (Cheimatobia brumata), Currant and Hop Pug Moth (Eupithecia assimilata), Currant-fruit Moth (Spilonota roborana), Currant and Gooseberry Sawf...
-Raspberries. 1. Cultivation
The Raspberry (Rubus Idceus), after the Gooseberry, Currant, and Strawberry, constitutes one of the most important market-garden crops. It differs in growth considerably from all other tree and bush f...
-Raspberries. 1. Cultivation. Continued
Steel's Victoria This is a slow-growing variety, requiring good soil and generous treatment, taking four or five years to come into full bearing. The fruit is large and conical. It is very early. Som...
-2. Raspberry Pests. The Raspberry Beetle (Byturus Tomentosus)
A small beetle, from 1/6 to 1/7 in. long, of a pitchy-brown colour, clothed with golden-brown pubescence, which is found flying about as soon as the Raspberry blossom buds show. The beetles then eat t...
-The Raspberry, Or Clay-Coloured, Weevil (Otiorhynchus Picipes)
This weevil also attacks other fruit, Hops, and pot plants. The beetles gnaw the buds, shoots, and leaves; and their footless, white larvae feed on the roots of bush fruit, Strawberries, Ferns, Hops, ...
-The Raspberry Moth (Lampronia Rubiella)
The caterpillars of this moth sometimes do much harm in Raspberry plantations by destroying the buds and tunnelling up the shoots. The moth is 1/4 in. long, with wing expanse of 1/2 in.; front wings b...
-Other Raspberry Pests
The Garden Swift Moth (Hepialus lupu-linus), the Dot Moth (Mamestra persicarice), the Black Anthonomus {An-thonomus rubi), Rose Chafer (Cetonia aurata), Cock Chafer (Melolontha vulgaris), Summer Chafe...
-3. Other "Berry" Fruits. Loganberry
This hybrid between the Red Raspberry and the Blackberry (named after the American Judge Logan) is now well known, but it cannot be said that it has yet caught on with the market-garden community t...
-Blackberry
Perhaps because this is a wild British fruit it does not find favour with growers, and yet its fruits, picked from the hedges, find a ready sale in the autumn. One might do worse than grow some plants...
-Mulberry (Morus Nigra)
This can only be regarded as an ornamental tree, easily grown on lawns in the southern parts, and against walls in less-favoured localities. Its fruits are delicious when ripe, but they give too much ...
-Strawberries. I. Cultivation. The Strawberry
The Strawberry (Fragaria) is a very important market-garden crop in England, where about 21,000 ac. are devoted to its culture. The most important centres appear to be Kent, 6733 ac; Hampshire, 2406 a...
-Strawberries. I. Cultivation. The Strawberry. Continued
Composition Of Water-Free Strawberry Crop (Except Roots)In Pounds Per Acre Plants. Fruit. Total. lb. lb. lb. Organic matter, exclusive of nitrogen....
-Forcing Strawberries For Profit
To succeed in forcing Strawberries for profit, it is essential in the first place to secure good strong plants. It is waste of time and money to force weak plants, and the results from such can never ...
-2. Strawberry Pests And Diseases. Strawberry Ground Beetles (Harpalus Rujicomis, &C)
At least four kinds of ground beetles, often called Bat Beetles, attack ripening and ripe strawberries. The commonest is the Red-legged Strawberry Beetle (Harpalus rujicomis), which is 1/2 in. long, ...
-The Garden Swift Moth (Hepialus Lupulinus)
The roots of Strawberries are attacked by the white caterpillars of this moth, which appears in May, June, and July, and is seen at dusk flying with a curious pendulumlike movement over plants and gra...
-Strawberry Eelworms (Ang'Uillulidae)
1. Cauliflower Disease (Apkelenchus fragariw). This small worm is only 075 to 080 mm. long in the female, smaller in the male, yet in numbers it is capable of producing a serious disease in Strawberri...
-Other Pests
Other pests attacking the Strawberry are the Surface Larvae, the caterpillars of the Heart-and-Dart Moth (Agrotis exclamationis), and those of the Yellow Underwing (Triphcena pronuba). These may also ...
-Strawberry-Leaf Spot (Sphcerella Fragaries)
This disease is prevalent wherever the Strawberry is cultivated, and is always in evidence, although it is only now and again that it assumes the proportions of an epidemic. As a rule it appears rathe...
-Strawberry Mildew (Splicerotheca Humuli)
This pest has long been known as an enemy of Strawberries, both cultivated and wild plants suffering equally. This same fungus is also the cause of the still more serious Hop Mildew , and is also m...
-Section XXIV. Figs. I. Cultivation
The Fig (Ficus Carica), although a native of the Mediterranean region and south-western Asia, is fairly hardy in most parts of England and Ireland, and quite hardy in the mildest parts. As a market or...
-Section XXIV. Figs. I. Cultivation. Continued
Pruning Fig trees require but little pruning, beyond cutting out unnecessary growths. As the young shoots bear the fruit near the extremities, as shown in the drawing, the best of these should be ret...
-2. Fungoid Diseases And Insect Pests. Fig Canker (Libertella Ulcerata)
This disease, which appears to be confined to this country, often does an immense amount of harm to plants, whether grown under glass or in the open. Soon after infection the bark becomes dry, and min...
-Fig Rot (Botrytis Cinerea)
Figs grown under glass frequently become diseased and rot when about half-ripe. The free end of the fruit presents a waterlogged appearance. This is quickly followed by the appearance of a dense mouse...
-Section XXV. Grapes. I. Cultivation
Grape growing as a commercial undertaking has come into existence within the last forty years, and in that time has passed through all stages - from small production and high prices to the enormous ou...
-Making The Vine Borders
Presuming the style of house to be decided upon, and the building finished, the preparation of the borders should next receive attention. It has already been impressed upon the reader that commercial ...
-Grape Planting
The borders having been made ready, the planting is the next thing to consider. Planting is done in the autumn or early spring, two-year-old canes being used for the purpose. These are planted at 1 ft...
-Grape Wiring
While the subject of the rods is under discussion it will be as well to glance at the question of the wiring. There are two ways of doing this: one is to have the wires running horizontally and the ot...
-Grape Pruning, Etc
Having indicated the method of growing on the young rods we now come to the regular treatment of a fruiting vinery. As soon after the leaves have fallen as possible the Vines can be gone over with sec...
-Grape Borders
The borders must next receive attention. These are scraped clean of every scrap of rubbish, such as bits of bark which have fallen on them during the cleaning of the rods, which work should have been ...
-Starting The Vines
A fortnight before the Vines are to be started a good watering is given if the borders are dryish. The house is shut up and kept close to induce the sap to begin to move. At the end of the fortnight t...
-Grape Thinning
As soon as it is possible to see the character of the bunches they must be thinned out, leaving only one bunch to a lateral, and it is best to remove straggly shoulders from the black varieties; the M...
-Grape Forcing
When it is desired to start Vines early, the change must be gradual; it will not do to make a violent alteration in the time of starting. If a house is started a month earlier each year it will be qui...
-Grape Marketing
Grapes, in spite of their perishable nature, can be sent to market in very per-fectcondition, the method of packing being varied to suit the distance they have to travel. Where the market is close, an...
-Grape Propagation
The raising of Vines for planting is a simple matter. Good, strong, well-ripened laterals are selected from Vines which have shown good bunches, and have ripened their fruit well in previous years. Fr...
-2. Cost, Returns, Etc
Information as to the weights of crops and the cost of growing is very difficult to get. The labour of keeping the necessary accounts is very great, and is very rarely undertaken by any grower. The ...
-3. Pests And Diseases Of The Vine. Red Spider
This is first seen by its causing small yellowish semi-transparent patches on the leaves, easily noticed by looking at the foliage against the light. If taken in time it can be stopped by sponging the...
-Vine Weevil
Its presence is shown by green berries being found on the borders in places, and by the eating of the leaves. The weevils can be caught by tapping the Vines at night over a white sheet, and showing a ...
-Scalding
This is brought about by irregularities in the temperature, and causes the berries to assume a shrivelled or scalded appearance, as shown in the woodcut (fig. 390). The temperature should not be allow...
-Mealy Bug's (Dactylopius Citri And D. Longispinus)
Two Mealy Bugs attack the Vine. They can at once be told by longispinus having long lateral and tail processes, whilst citri has short ones. They live in any crevices on the Vines, and even amongst th...
-Other Vine Pests
The Grape-fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster), Vine Scale (Pulvinaria vitis), and the Phylloxera (Phylloxera vastatrix), which has now and again occurred in England. [f. V. T.] ...
-Powdery Mildew Of The Vine ( Uncinula Spiralis)
This very destructive disease was first noticed in a vinery at Margate in 1845, and within a very few years it had invaded Europe, Syria, Asia Minor, and Algeria, and, as usual on the first introducti...
-Grape Mildew (Plasmo-Para Viticola)
This disease (fig. 392) is said to have been introduced into Europe from the United States, where it is very destructive both to cultivated and native wild vines. Every part of the plant is attacked, ...
-Black Rot Or Anthracnose {Guignnardia Bidwellii)
This disease is the scourge of American viticulturists, and has proved no less in Europe .since its introduction along with American Vines, imported to replace those destroyed by the Phylloxera. The f...
-Brown Mildew Of The Vine (Sclerotinia Fuckeliana)
Too frequently in neglected vineries the leaves and bunches of berries are more or less covered with a dense brown or mouse-coloured mould, often called Botrytis cinerea. This is one of the commonest ...
-Crown Gall
This disease is very prevalent on Vine roots. Described under Loganberry (see p. 163). [g. m.] ...
-Section XXVI. Nuts. Hazel Nuts. I. General
The hard - shelled fruits variously known as Hazel Nuts, Filberts, and Cob Nuts are produced by a somewhat hairy or downy shrub or small tree (Corylus Avellana), the wild form of which is a native of ...
-2. Nut Pests. The Nut Weevil (Balaninus Nucum)
Cob, filbert, and wild hazels are often badly damaged by a maggot or grub which eats out the kernel. This is the larva of the Nut Weevil (Balaninus nucum). This weevil can readily be distinguished by ...
-Other Nut Pests
The Winter Moth (Gheimatobia brumata), Mottled Umber Moth (Hybernia defoliaria), Buff Tip Moth (Phalera bucephala), Nut-leaf Blister Moth (Lithocolletis oryli), Leaf Weevils (Phyllobius sp.), the Nut-...
-The Walnut. I. General. Walnut
Apart from its value as a timber and ornamental tree, the Walnut (Juglans regia) is also a valuable fruit tree. It is not, however, grown as a crop in the same sense that other fruit trees are, but is...
-2. Diseases. Walnut-Leaf Blotch (Gnomonia Leptostyla)
Small brown patches sometimes appear on the living leaves. As a rule these are few in number, and practically do no harm. Now and again, however, these patches are crowded on the leaves, which in cons...
-Walnut-Leaf Spot (Ascochyta Juglandis)
This fungus forms greyish blotches up to 1/4 in. across on living Walnut leaves. These patches become dead and dry and fall away, leaving holes in the leaf. As a rule but few patches are present on a ...
-Section XXVII. Melons. Cucumis Melo
The Melon (Cucumis Melo), although never found in a wild state, seems to have been cultivated for centuries in Asia Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, etc, and for many generations has been a favourite fruit...
-Section XXVII. Melons. Cucumis Melo. Continued
Melon Varieties As to varieties, there are many, having green, white, or scarlet flesh. In Guernsey the kind largely grown is the Guernsey Al , but almost any good standard kind will do for market....
-Section XXVIII. Garden Surveying, Levelling, And Mensuration. Measuring Of Land
Everyone connected with the land, be he market gardener, nurseryman, or farmer, should make himself acquainted with the principles of land surveying and measuring in so far as they relate to his busin...
-Land Measure
In measuring land a chain called Gunter's chain (fig. 398) is used. It consists of 100 links, each of which is 7.92 in. Ions 792 The whole chain is thus 792/12 = 66 ft. long = 22 yd. = 4 lineal pol...
-Land Measure. Continued
Table Showing The Number Of Yards, Feet, And Inches In From 1 To 100 Of The Links Of The Imperial Chain Links. Yd. Ft. In. 1 0 0 7 92 2 0 ...
-Chaining
Surveying chains are made of steel or iron wire. At every 10 links from each end of the chain a piece of brass known as a teller or marker is attached, as shown in the figures. These markers are notch...
-The Field Book
When there is any great extent of measuring by chain to be done, a Field Book will be found useful to record the distances, and any important features to the right or to the left of the chain line. A ...
-Levelling
In laying out a garden, or in reducing a piece of undulating ground to the level of a bowling green, cricket pitch, or tennis ground, the art of levelling is a useful accomplishment. A simple method o...
-The Dumpy Level
For more accurate work an instrument called the dumpy level (fig. 403) is useful. It consists of a telescope mounted on a tripod stand, and can be moved about in all directions. Attached to the tele...
-Laying Out Land And Planting
It often happens that ground is to be laid out in squares, rectangles, etc, of different dimensions, and it may be well to give a few instructions and illustrations. The Square If an acre of land is...
-Laying Out Land And Planting. Part 2
Table Showing Dimensions Of A Statute Acre In Yards, From 1 To 100 Yards By Length Length. Width. yd. yd. ft. in. 1 4840 0 0 2 ...
-Laying Out Land And Planting. Part 3
Table Showing The Number Of Plants, Trees, Or Shrubs To 1 Statute Acre Planted From 1 Ft. To 30 Ft. Apart Distance in Feet. Number. 1 43,560 1 1/2 19,360 ...
-Laying Out Land And Planting. Part 4
Table Showing Number Of Plants, At Given Distances, Contained In A Square Rod, Pole, Or Perch Inches apart. No. of Plants 3x3 ...... 4356 4x4 ...... 2450 ...
-Laying Out Land And Planting. Part 5
Circles The diameter of any circle being known, the circumference is obtained by multiplying it by 31416 or 22/7. Thus, a circle with a diameter of 12 in. would have a circumference of 37.6992 in. Th...
-Laying Out Land And Planting. Part 6
Cylinder Hot-water pipes and water cans being really cylinders, it is useful to know their surface areas as well as contents. To find the area of a curved surface of a circular cylinder (like a piece...
-Volumes
The volume or cubic contents of any body is found by solid or cubic measure, a practical knowledge of which is most useful to commercial gardeners. Before proceeding to give examples, the following ta...
-Water Tanks
In square-built tanks the length by width by depth equals cubic contents. Each cubic foot by 6 1/4 equals number of gallons in tank. Thus a tank measuring 6 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and 4 ft. deep contai...
-Water Tanks. Continued
Number Of Gallons In Circular Tanks And Wells Diameter. When the Depth is Feet. 3 ft. 4 ft. 5 ft. 6 ft. 7 ft. 8 ft. 9 ft. 10 ft. l1ft....
-Flower Pots
It is a little more complicated to gauge the cubic contents of these accurately, because they are not cylindrical, square, or rectangular bodies, but truncated cones - broader at the top than at the b...
-Section XXIX. Market-Garden Accounts
There is a general impression that market gardeners and market growers generally do not worry themselves much in the matter of keeping strict account of their financial transactions. This impression m...
-On Starting The Market Garden
Let us assume that a man contemplates starting a market garden on a small scale, and that he intends to grow Apples, Pears, Plums, Gooseberries, Currants, Raspberries, vegetables of various kinds, and...
-On Starting The Market Garden. Part 2
Table II Estimate Showing the Approximate Annual Expenses of Working a Freehold Market Garden of 10 Acres. s. d. Rates, taxes, and insurance... 25 0 0 ...
-On Starting The Market Garden. Part 3
Table III Estimate of the Approximate Annual Receipts from a Mixed Market Garden of 10 Acres, Established 10 Years s. d. 2 ac. half-standard Apple trees, 160 to acre =...
-Account Books
There are now all kinds of books - simple and otherwise - on the market with the object of enabling any tradesman to keep an accurate record of his business. Amongst the larger growers of flowers, fru...
-The Market Book
Almost everyone who goes to market makes out a list of the goods he is taking or sending up, stating the exact quantities of each. This information is generally in a narrow book that fits easily into ...
-Loose-Leaf Books
Nowadays there are many kinds of loose-leaf account books, and market growers who do not wish to carry a lot of dead material about in their pockets would do well to invest in some of the loose-leaf...
-Analysis Book
Many growers never go beyond the. market sales-book and the bank book; consequently they are unable to say whether they are doing well or badly with any particular class of produce. To avoid this it w...
-Fruit Sales Book
For the Week ending....................................... 191...... Crops. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Friday. Saturday. Total for each Crop Sold ...
-Vegetable Sales Book
For the Week ending....................................... 191...... Crops. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Friday. Saturday. Total for each Crop. ...
-Plants And Flowers Sales Book
For the Week ending............................................... 191. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. Friday. Saturday. Total for each Crop. ...
-Work, Time, And Wages Books
In large establishments it will be well to keep books recording the name of each employee and the wages paid to each weekly; and if more elaborate details are wanted the work done may be specified on ...
-Tomato House, No. 1
For the Week ending....................................... 191...... Lb. Picked. These Particulars to be filled in at Office. Prices obtained. Fuel used during the we...
-Balance Sheets
Besides having Market and Sales Books, and an Analysis Book, it will be found a good plan to have special sheets drawn up to keep a record of the receipts and expenses, either monthly or quarterly. Th...
-Weekly, Monthly, Or Quarterly Statement And Balance Sheet
JANUARY I, 1912 TO MARCH 31, 1912 Dr. RECEIPTS Estimated Receipts for the Year 1912. Actual Receipts to Date from Jan. 1. Actual Receipts corresponding Period la...
-Petty Cash Book
While it is always advisable to pay amounts of 1 and upwards by cheque, there are usually many small amounts that are more conveniently paid in cash. These, however, should be entered in a Petty Cas...









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