This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
This British tree grows from 30-70 ft. high, and is recognized by its doubly serrate ovate elliptic leaves, hairy beneath. Plants from 1 1/2-3 ft. high are sold for hedge purposes, chiefly at the rate of 2s. to 3s. per 100. There are several varieties, including aureo-variegata, leaves blotched yellow; incisa, leaves cut; quercifolia, Oak-like, and variegata, variegated, blotched with white. The American Hornbeam (americana or caroliniana) has ovate oblong pointed leaves serrated doubly on the margin. Raised from seeds.