Manurial Experiments On Seven Plots

Plot.

Manure Applied per Acre.

Highest Yield.

Lowest Yield.

Cost of Manure.

8

d.

I.

No manure ... ...

7 tons 0 cwt. (Monaghan)

1 ton 15 cwt. (Antrim)

-

II.

20 tons farmyard manure...

14 tons 7 cwt. (Wexford)

4 tons 8 cwt. (Antrim)

4

0

0

III.

15 tons farmyard manure...

12 tons 7 cwt. (Wexford)

3 tons 15 cwt. (Antrim)

3

0

0

IV.

15 tons farmyard manure...

14 tons 0 cwt. (Wexford)

5 tons 10 cwt. (Antrim)

3

15

0

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

V.

l5 tons farmyard manure...

14 tons 5 cwt. (Wexford)

6 tons 2 cwt. (Antrim)

4

7

0

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

4 „ superphosphate ...

VI.

15 tons farmyard manure...

15 tons 17 cwt. (Wexford)

6 tons 9 cwt. (Antrim)

4

17

0

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

4 „ superphosphate ...

l „ muriate of potash ...

VII.

15 tons farmyard manure ..

15 tons 2 cwt. (Wexford)

6 tons 13 cwt. (Antrim)

4

18

0

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

4 „ superphosphate ...

1 „ sulphate of potash...

SOME FAMILIAR VEGETABLES.

SOME FAMILIAR VEGETABLES.

This set of experiments shows that the manures which apparently gave good results in Wexford were valueless, if not injurious, in Antrim. It is curious that in all but the "No manure" experiment Wexford County-gave the greatest yield, while in every case Antrim gave the poorest. The figures given represent the gross yield, but the quantity of small or unsaleable tubers varied greatly, being 40 per cent in one case, 37 per cent in another, but rarely below 13 per cent.

In a second set of experiments in the same leaflet (No. 38), 15 tons per acre of farmyard manure were given in every case, but the quantities of sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate, and muriate of potash were increased or decreased. Here, again, taking every county in Ireland, the results for Antrim are generally poor in comparison with the results obtained in Wicklow, Wexford, Down, etc., the highest gross yield being in Wicklow - 17 tons 7 cwt. (55 cwt. small) from 15 tons of farmyard manure, 1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia, 4 cwt. of superphosphate, 2 cwt. muriate of potash, the cost of which was 5, 7s.

In the year 1899 an elaborate series of mammal experiments with Potatoes were carried out and tabulated at the Agricultural Side Brewood Grammar School, Brewood, Staffs. Thirteen varieties were manured in eleven different ways, making a total of 143 separate plots. The tubers were planted with a mould plough on 4 and 5 May, 1899, but the distance apart between sets and furrows is not stated. It may be assumed, however, that the furrows were 24 to 27 in. apart, and the sets 12 to 15 in. The manures used were nitrate of soda (1 to 4 cwt. per acre), kainit (4 to 6 cwt. per acre), superphosphate (3 to 5 cwt. per acre), and farmyard manure (10 tons per acre). There was also a plot unmanured in any way for each variety. The results of these experiments were rather extraordinary, the difference being very slight in any case. Indeed, the plots that had no manure at all beat those that had, in seven cases. The "no-manure" plot was better than 4 cwt. of nitrate of soda and 4 cwt. of kainit in one case; better than 4 cwt. nitrate and 3 cwt. of superphosphate in two cases; better than 3 cwt. of superphosphate and 4 cwt. of kainit in one case; better than 4 cwt. of nitrate, 5 cwt. of superphosphate, and 6 cwt. kainit in one case; better than 2 cwt. nitrate, 2 cwt. superphosphate, and 4 cwt. kainit in one case; and better than 10 tons of farmyard manure in one case. The greatest yield was 9 tons 17 cwt. from a variety called "Farmer's Glory", and the poorest was 2 tons 17 3/4 cwt. from land that had been manured with 10 tons of farmyard manure. The highest yield from the no-manure plot was 7 tons 1 1/4 cwt., and the lowest 2 tons 16 3/4 cwt.

For several years interesting experiments have been carried out with Potatoes at the Agricultural and Horticultural School, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire. Here again, however, the results leave one entirely in the dark, if not mystified, as to which is the best manure for Potatoes. The following table shows manurial experiments with "Sutton's Reliance" Potato, carried out on ten different plots: -

Plot.

Manures Applied per Acre.

Yield per Acre.

Gross Price of the

Produce per Acre.

Cost of Manures per Acre.

Saleable.

Small.

Diseased.

Total.

No.

T.

c.

Q

cwt.

cwt.

T.

c.

Q

8.

d.

8.

d.

I.

No manure......

0

14

0

11

1

1

6

0

2

13

0

----

II.

3 cwt. superphosphate ..

2

19

0

10

1

3

10

0

9

7

0

1

15

3

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

1 cwt. muriate of potash ...

III.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

4

2

0

11

2

4

15

0

12

17

0

6

0

0

IV.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

4

16

0

10

1

5

7

0

14

18

0

6

8

3

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

V.

20 tons farmyard manure ..

4

18

0

13

1

5

12

0

15

7

0

7

1

9

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

VI.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

4

2

0

11

1

4

14

0

12

17

0

7

16

9

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

5 cwt. kainit ......

VII.

20 tons farmyard manure

4

18

0

13

1

5

12

0

15

7

0

7

15

3

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

1 cwt. sulphate of potash

VIII.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

5

8

0

13

1

6

2

0

16

17

> 0

7

8

6

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

1/2 cwt. muriate of potash

IX.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

5

8

0

15

1

6

4

0

16

19

0

15

3

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

1 cwt. muriate of potash

X.

20 tons farmyard manure ...

4

13

0

14

1

5

8

0

14

13

0

8

8

9

3 cwt. superphosphate ...

1 cwt. sulphate of ammonia

2 cwt. muriate of potash

It will be noticed that the greatest gross yield was 6 tons 4 cwt. in No. IX at a manurial cost of 7, 15s. 3d. per acre, while poor results - 5 tons 8 cwt. - were obtained in No. X at a greater manurial cost of 8, 8s. 9d. Taking the saleable produce of No. X experiment as being worth 3 per ton, the gross receipt would come to 13, 19s. per acre. Deducting 8, 8s. 9d. for manures, 5, 10s. 3d. per acre - a totally inadequate sum - is left for labour, rent, rates, taxes, etc.

These figures dealing with manures have been given at some length to show that little or no faith can be placed in the experiments. The deductions are fallacious and misleading, and the crops miserably poor as well. Dosing a soil - no matter what its character or texture may be - with certain manures, without applying labour, or "elbow grease" - that old, original, important, and always responsive manure - and without giving a fair amount of space, is practically wasting time, money, labour, and land.