This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
A genus of evergreen and deciduous shrubs, many of which are remarkable for the coloured tints of their foliage in autumn, especially the common European "Spindle Tree" (E. europceus). This and the North American americanus and atropurpureus are also bright in autumn with their orange or scarlet capsules. For trade purposes, however, the Japanese E. japonicus is the most popular, and its varieties, of which albo-marginatus, aureo-marginatus, latifolius albus, I. aureus are among the best. The green-leaved form is not so valuable, but it sells well for hedges, in various sizes, from a few inches up to 2 or 3 ft. It is frequently attacked by the maggots of the Small Ermine Moth in summer, when the soil is badly tilled. The green and golden varieties are sold in thousands for window boxes, edges, borders, etc, and are raised from cuttings in cold frames whenever obtainable. In some places they require protection in winter when young. E. microphyllus is a pretty kind with small glossy green leaves, and is well adapted for edging work. E. radicans is a rambling or climbing species, useful for edges or for training up walls, etc. There are several pretty forms of it, including variegata, Silver Gem, foliis pictis, roseo-argenteis, tricolor, etc.