This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
This handsome evergreen Japanese shrub, 4-6 ft. high, is easily mistaken for a green-leaved Holly owing to its deep shining-green prickly-toothed leaves, especially the variety called ilicifolius. There are several varieties, such as albo-marginatum and aureo- marginatum, rotundifolium, purpurascens (with purplish young leaves), and myrtifolium with Myrtle-like leaves. Other species are americanus, with lance-shaped leaves, and fragrans, with elliptic lance-shaped leaves. Sandy loam and leaf mould or peat is the best compost. Propagation by cuttings and layers.