This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
This business is commercially in the hands chiefly of nurserymen, although not a few market gardeners and private individuals also indulge in it. The stocks principally used by British growers are the Manetti and the Brier or Dog Rose, but the Bour-sault, de la Grifferae, the Celina, and rugosa are others used, often by Continental growers; and plants are grown as bushes, half-standards and standards. As a rule most of the Tea Roses and Hybrid Teas are worked on the Brier Stock, while most of the Hybrid Perpetuals are budded or grafted on the Manetti stock. The stocks themselves are usually raised from cuttings, but the Brier stock is often raised from seeds - thus producing the seedling Brier stock that some favour so much and others just as strongly dislike.
The cuttings for bush Roses are made about the end of October, 6 to 9 in. long, from well-ripened shoots of the current year's growth. They are all "eyed" - that is, all the buds are removed except two or three at the top - the object in view being to prevent as far as possible the development of suckers from the wild stock. The cuttings are planted vertically, 3 or 4 in. from each other, in rows about 1 ft. apart, and are buried about three-fourths of their length, the soil being pressed firmly about them with the feet. The best time for putting in cuttings is about the last week in October, but they may be inserted also during November in mild open weather.
Fig. 436. - Showing how Rosebuds are detached at the Dotted Lines shown on the Inverted Shoot.
The leaves are cut away at a, leaving a short piece of stalk as at 6. The dormant bud is shown at c; at d is a bud ready for insertion, the dotted lines showing portion cut away.
Many of the choicer Roses, including all the Wichuraiana and Polyantha section, and many others are raised from cuttings in the same way as Manetti and Brier stocks, but are not "eyed ", and thus "Roses on their own roots" are readily secured.
The cuttings of Brier and Manetti are left in the soil until the following October and November. They are then transplanted 6 to 9 in. apart in rows about 2 ft. asunder, so as to be ready for budding in the open air the following summer. The soil is drawn up in ridges round the base of the stocks. The soil, however, is removed prior to budding, and the basal portion of the stems, having been surrounded with the moist soil, are much more easily "worked" than those that have been left exposed to the weather during the season.
For standard and half - standard Roses the Brier stock is always used, and stems as clean and straight as possible are selected for the purpose. Half-standards are about 3 ft. high; and standards vary from 6 to 9 ft. or more high, the tallest stems being used for the budding of weeping varieties with long shoots, such as the Dorothy Perkins class and others. The stocks are planted in October and November about 1 ft. apart in rows about 2 ft. apart, and to prevent them being blown over by the wind they are often strung together with twine for mutual support. These standard and half-standard stocks rarely have any fibrous roots attached. They are therefore planted deeply and firmly, and by the following July one or two of the best shoots near the heads are reserved for the insertion of the buds.