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Commercial Gardening Vol4| by John Weathers (the Editor)



Trees, Shrubs, And Woody Climbers. Conifers And Taxads. Vegetable Growing For Market. Sweet Herbs And Small Salads. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation.

TitleCommercial Gardening Vol4
AuthorJohn Weathers (the Editor)
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1913
Copyright1913, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonCommercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners

A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners, Market Growers & Fruit Flower & Vegetable Growers, Nurserymen, Etc.

By Many Practical Specialists Under The Editorship Of John Weathers, Author of "A Practical Guide to Garden Plants" "French Market Gardening" "The Bulb Book" etc.

In Four Volumes

Fully Illustrated

-Section XXX. Trees, Shrubs, And Woody Climbers
Although results are not so quickly attainable with trees and shrubs as in some branches of nursery or market-garden work, yet once stocks are secured and a supply maintained by a properly organized s...
-Acer (Maple)
A large trade is done in some kinds of Maple, of which the best-known kinds, perhaps, are the Common Sycamore (A. Pseudaplatanus) and the Norway Maple (A. platcmoides). Of the Syca-more there are seve...
-Aesculus
With the genus Pavia this includes the Horse-chestnut (ae. Hippocastanum) and the Buck Eye. There are several fine varieties of the Horse-chestnut, including the double white - flowered one and the va...
-Ailanthus Glandulosa
The Chinese Tree of Heaven; a tall deciduous tree which flourishes almost anywhere, and may be raised from seeds, suckers, and root cuttings. It grows rapidly, and has ornamental pinnate leaves and sm...
-Alnus (Alder)
The common kind, glutinosa, is largely grown for planting in wet or marshy ground on account of its quick growth. There are several varieties, such as aurea, golden; laciniata, with drooping habit and...
-Amelanchier
The best-known kind is canadensis, a lovely North American tree, with oblong elliptic pointed leaves which assume deep-red and brown tints in autumn. It bears masses of snowy-white Hawthornlike flower...
-Amygfdalus (Almond)
The Common Almond (A. communis or Prunus Amygdalus) sells well as a standard ornamental tree for flowering in February and March. Besides the ordinary white or rose kind there are several varieties, s...
-Andromeda
Botanists have decided for the time being that there is only one species, namely the British polifolia, a dwarf evergreen shrub about 1 ft. high, found wild in British and Irish peat bogs. It has pink...
-Aralia Chinensis (Dimorphanthus Mandschuricus)
A somewhat prickly and hairy ornamental Chinese shrub (fig. 411), having leathery twice-pinnate leaves, and panicles of creamy-white flowers, succeeded by black berries. The variegated form with an ir...
-Arbutus
The best-known species is A. Unedo, the British Strawberry Tree, with evergreen finely toothed leaves, clusters of drooping white or rose-tinted flowers in autumn, followed by roundish granular Strawb...
-Aucuba Japonica
There are male or pollen-bearing and female or berry-bearing plants of this species. The male kind was introduced from Japan by Robert Fortune in 1850, but the female was introduced as early as 1783. ...
-Azalea
Besides the more tender Indian Azaleas (see Vol. II, p. 130) there are several hardy species and varieties. The natural species are practically confined to botanical collections, and include arboresce...
-Azara
The kind most generally grown is microphylla, a somewhat tender Chilian evergreen shrub with dark shining green leaves, small greenish fragrant flowers, succeeded in favourable spots by orange berries...
-Bamboo
There are about fifty different kinds of Hardy Bamboos grown, and these are split up under three genera as follows. 1. Arundinaria: anceps,aris-tata, auricoma, chrysantha, fal-cata, Falconeri, Fortun...
-Berberidopsis Corallina
An ornamental Chilian shrub with rambling stems, spiny Berberis-like leaves, and drooping racemes of crimson flowers. Fairly hardy round London. Raised from seeds, cuttings of the young shoots in sand...
-Berberis (Barberry)
The species most largely grown is the North American Holly-leaved Barberry, B. Aquifolium (formerly known as Mahonia). It is a graceful plant with pinnate spiny-toothed leaves, and produces masses of ...
-Darwin's Barberry
Darwin's Barberry (B. Dartvini), from Patagonia, is another splendid evergreen with arching sprays of small spiny leaves, and orange flowers; and with it may be classed stenophylla (a hybrid between D...
-Betula (Birch)
There are many species of Birch, but perhaps none to equal in beauty and value the common silver or white-barked Birch of the British Islands (B. alba), which attains a height of 50-80 ft. in favoured...
-Buddleia
Ornamental shrubs, of which the best known are: the Chilian Orange Ball Tree (B. globosa), 10-20 ft. high, with long lance-shaped leaves, and ball-like heads of brilliant orange-yellow flowers. B. var...
-Buxus (Box)
The Common British Box (B. sempervirens) is the best for commercial purposes. It is extensively grown for hedges, coverts, etc, and, owing to the fact that it stands clipping well, is now grown in a v...
-Calycanthus
The Carolina Allspice (ft floridus), 6-8 ft., with dull-purple flowers, sells on account of its camphor-like scent. Among its varieties are asplenifolius, with cut leaves, bullatus, wrinkled, and vari...
-Caragana
The best-known species is the Siberian Pea Tree (ft arborescens), which grows up to 20 ft. high, having pinnate leaves, and clusters of yellow pea-like flowers in April and May. Other kinds not so lar...
-Cappenteria Californica
A lovely North American shrub, 6-10 ft. high, with broadly lance-shaped leaves, 2 to 3 in. long, and trusses of pure-white Anemone-like flowers in June. It is a tender plant, and is grown for sale in ...
-Carpinus Betulus (Hornbeam)
This British tree grows from 30-70 ft. high, and is recognized by its doubly serrate ovate elliptic leaves, hairy beneath. Plants from 1 1/2-3 ft. high are sold for hedge purposes, chiefly at the rate...
-Capya (Hickory)
The Hickories are fine deciduous North American trees, 30-70 ft. high, with Walnut-like leaves. They are easily raised from seeds, best sown in small pots for sale, as taproots make transplanting diff...
-Caryopteris Mastacanthus
A pretty Chinese bush, with purplish stems, ovate-oblong coarsely toothed leaves, and clustered deep-violet or lavender flowers in October. Hardy in the milder parts of the kingdom. Raised from seeds,...
-Cassinia Fulvida (Diplopappus Chrysophyllus)
Although called the Golden Heath, this New Zealand shrub belongs to the Daisy family. It grows 2-3 ft. high, and has yellowish wiry stems and narrow leaves deep green above, golden beneath. It is a ...
-Castanea Sativa (Vesca Vulgaris)
This is the Sweet Chestnut, 50-70 ft. high, native of Asia Minor, but now practically naturalized. It is a splendid ornamental tree, useful for fruit and timber, with large deep-green serrate leaves. ...
-Catalpa Bignonioides (G. Syringwfolia)
A noble North American tree, known as the Indian Bean owing to the long slender roundish purple pods, 12 in. or more long, which are borne after the trusses of large tubular bell-shaped flowers in J...
-Ceanothus
Ornamental North American shrubs, somewhat tender in places, and usually grown on warm walls. C. americanus - the New Jersey Tea plant - has clusters of white flowers; C. azureus has long dense raceme...
-Celastrus Scandens
A climbing North American shrub, with ovate serrated leaves, and racemes of pale-yellow flowers in summer, succeeded by orange-coloured berries. Increased by seeds and layers. ...
-Cerasus (Cherry)
There are three groups of Cherries, viz.: (1) the Cherries proper, (2) the Bird Cherries, and (3) the Laurel Cherries, all put under the genus Prunus by botanists. Amongst the first group is C. Avium,...
-Cercis Siliquastrum (Judas Tree)
This is the best known. It grows 20-30 ft. high, and has peculiar bluntly heart-shaped notched leaves and clusters of bright - purple, pale - rose, or whitish flowers in May. It requires protection in...
-Chionanthus Virginicus (Fringe Tree)
A pretty North American tree or shrub, with oblong lance-shaped leaves and drooping clusters of pure-white flowers with narrow fringe-like petals. C. retusus (fig. 417), from China, has leaves woolly ...
-Choisya Ternata (Fig. 418)
A beautiful evergreen, known as the Mexican Mock Orange, recognized by its glossy-green ternate leaves and pure-white sweet-scented flowers in April and May. Raised from cuttings and layers. Fig. ...
-Cistus (Rock Rose)
Several species are grown, although they are suitable only for the milder parts of the kingdom. The flowers, although fleeting in character, are produced so profusely in succession that the bushes app...
-Cladpastis Tinctoria (Virgilia Luted)
A small North American Leguminous shrub with drooping racemes of white pea-shaped flowers in May. Increased by seeds and cuttings of the roots. ...
-Clematis
Although there are over forty species of Clematis known, all interesting, and many beautiful, they are of little value commercially in comparison with the garden hybrids that have appeared during the ...
-Clematis. Continued
2. Lanuginosa Group The typical C. lanuginosa is a native of China, whence it was introduced in 1851. It flowers from June to October, and has given rise to-such fine broad-petal led varieties as alb...
-Clerodendron
There are two hardy shrubs in this genus worth noting, viz. C. fostidum (Bungei), a Chinese plant, 5 ft. high, with large downy heart-shaped leaves and dense clusters of lilac-rose flowers in August, ...
-Clethra
There are several species, the best known being the American alnifolia, 3-4 ft., with Alder-like leaves and racemes of white flowers from July to September, and arborea, from Madeira, 8-10 ft. high; a...
-Clianthus Puniceus (New Zealand Parrot Flower)
A distinct shrub, 6-15 ft. high, with pinnate leaves and large brilliant scarlet pea-like flowers in early summer. It requires warm sheltered spots. The Glory Pea of Australia (C. Dampieri) grows ab...
-Colutea Arborescens (Bladder Senna)
A quick - growing shrub, 6-10 ft. high, with graceful pinnate leaves and racemes of yellow flowers from June to August, followed by large bladder-like pods tinted with red when ripe. There is a dwarf ...
-Comptonia (Myrica) Asplenifolia (Sweet Fern)
A distinct North American shrub, 3-4 ft. high, having sweet-scented deciduous Fern-like leaves and small flowers. It flourishes in moist peaty soil, and is increased by layers, offsets, suckers, and s...
-Coriaria Myrtifolia
A pretty South European shrub, 3-6 ft. high, with Myrtle-like leaves and small greenish flowers, succeeded by fleshy poisonous berries. C. terminalis has drooping branches, laden with clear golden ber...
-Cornus (Cornel, Dogwood)
There are several more or less ornamental shrubs belonging to this genus. C. alba, 10 ft., has creamy-white flowers and white fruits. The variety Spathi is a fine foliage plant, the leaves being bronz...
-Coponilla Emerus (Scorpion Senna)
An elegant somewhat hairy South European shrub, 3-6 ft. high, with pinnate leaves and clusters of yellow pea-like flowers. Increased by seeds or cuttings. ...
-Corylus (Hazel)
The Common British Hazel or Filbert (C. Avellana) grows to a height of 20 ft. or more, and is highly valued. It has several varieties, including purpurea, with rich-purple leaves; aurea, golden; heter...
-Cotoneastep
A genus of very ornamental shrubs, some being evergreen, others deciduous, but all useful for garden or rockwork decoration, or for forming game coverts. The flowers in all cases are white and Hawthor...
-Crataegus
The best-known member of this large genus is the Hawthorn, Quick, or May Tree, G. Oxyacantha, well known by its lobed leaves, somewhat spiny stems, and glorious masses of white (or pink) sweet-scented...
-The Cockspur Thorn (C. Crus-Galli)
The Cockspur Thorn (C. Crus-Galli)is a North American tree, 10-30 ft., with white flowers tinted red, and having scarlet fruits. C. Carrierei is remarkable for its fine scarlet fruits, as is C. coccin...
-The Fire Thorn Or Pyracantha (C. Pyracantha)
The Fire Thorn Or Pyracantha (C. Pyracantha) is a well-known evergreen with sheets of white flowers in May and myriads of orange-scarlet fruits in winter. The variety Lwlandi is considered the best. O...
-Cytisus (Broom)
Apart from the lovely greenhouse plant C. fragrans (see Vol. II, p. 165), there are several ornamental shrubs grown in large numbers, many of them being easily raised from seeds, while the choicer or ...
-Daboecia Polifolia (St. Dabeoc's Heath)
A pretty Irish Heath- like shrub, 1-2 ft. high, with dark-green leaves and racemes of globular flowers of white, pink, crimson, or purple, according to variety. One, called bicolor, has white and purp...
-Daphne
A genus with several species of trailing or bushy shrubs, fond of a peaty soil, or a good mixture of leaf soil and loam. The rarer kinds are increased by layers or cuttings, but the commoner ones, lik...
-Daphniphyllum Glaucescens
A beautiful shrub, 6-8 ft. high, from China and Japan, with Rhododendron-like leaves having a bluish-white under surface. Increased by cuttings or layers. D. jezoense is a similar but dwarfer kind. ...
-Desfontainea Spinosa
A fine evergreen Holly-like shrub from the Chilian Andes, attaining a height of 10 to 20 ft. in the Channel Islands, parts of Ireland, and other favoured spots. It has tubular scarlet flowers tipped w...
-Deutzia Gracilis
This Japanese shrub is largely forced into early bloom during the winter months, and is valued for sprays of pure-white flowers. It is raised from cuttings or layers in the open air or in cold frames,...
-Diervilla (Weigela)
The most popular species is D. florida, formerly better known as Weigela rosea. It is a deciduous Chinese shrub, 6-8 ft. high, with masses of tubular rose or white flowers in April and May. There are ...
-Elseagnus
Distinct-looking shrubs or small trees often covered with silvery scales. They flourish in ordinary good soil, and are increased by seeds, cuttings, layers, or grafting. The best-known kinds are angus...
-Embothrium Coccineum (Fire Bush)
A beautiful Chilian tree with oblong leaves and drooping racemes of orange-scarlet blossoms in summer. It likes sandy peat, and may be increased by cuttings or layers. It is only hardy in the mildest ...
-Erica (Heath)
Amongst dwarf evergreen shrubs Heaths occupy an important position. They flourish in a peaty soil, or in one composed chiefly of leaf mould, and will also do well in a mixture of peat and loam. Thousa...
-Escallonia
A genus of pretty South American shrubs, quite hardy in the milder parts of the kingdom, especially near seaside places. They flourish in ordinary good soil, and are raised from cuttings in cold frame...
-Euonymus
A genus of evergreen and deciduous shrubs, many of which are remarkable for the coloured tints of their foliage in autumn, especially the common European Spindle Tree (E. europceus). This and the No...
-Exochorda Grandiflora (Pearl Bush)
A pretty Chinese shrub, 6 ft. high, with lance-shaped serrulate leaves and large white flowers. E. Alberti, from Persia, attains a height of 12 ft. Warm sheltered positions and loamy soil are necessar...
-Fagus Sylvatica (Beech)
This well-known British tree is raised in thousands annually from seeds, and is used for hedges and timber. There are numerous varieties, including the purple-leaved ones, atro-purpurea, purpurea, and...
-Forsythia
Splendid shrubs of irregular growth, from China and Japan. F. suspensa (Fortunei) has long slender shoots wreathed with clear-yellow flowers in February and March. F. viridissima is a more bushy plant...
-Fraxinus Excelsior (Ash)
Thousands of young plants are raised from seeds every year, the Ash being a valuable timber tree as well as an ornamental one. There are several varieties, such as aurea, with yellowish bark; also a g...
-Garrya Elliptica
A pretty North American evergreen shrub with leathery leaves and yellowish-green catkins from November to February. The pollen-bearing (male) plant (fig. 424) is handsomer than the seed-bearing one. G...
-Gaultheria
Dwarf or trailing North American shrubs useful for carpeting the ground with their evergreen foliage. G. procumbens grows 4 to 6 in. high, its white tubular flowers appearing over the lance-shaped lea...
-Genista
Ornamental flowering twiggy shrubs closely related to the Brooms (Cytisus), and easily grown in any garden soil, or even a poor soil. Most of them are easily raised from seeds. The best known are oetn...
-Griselinia Littoralis
This and G. lucida are fine New Zealand evergreens with shining - green leathery leaves. Chiefly useful for seaside planting in the most favoured spots. ...
-Halesia
This includes several species of deciduous shrubs, the best known being H. tetraptera, the Snowdrop Tree, so called from its drooping clusters of pure-white snowdrop-like flowers in May. Sandy loam; l...
-Hamamelis Virginica (Witch Hazel)
This hardy North American shrub, with obovate leaves and clusters of twisted fringe-like yellow flowers, is the best known. Other kinds are arborea, japonica and its variety Zuccariniana, and mollis ...
-Hedera Helix (Ivy)
There are many kinds of Ivy in cultivation, and they are roughly divided into two groups - (1) the Tree Ivies (arbo-rescens), and (2) the Climbing Ivies. A great trade is done in both. The Tree Ivies ...
-Hedysarum Multijugum
A Chinese Leguminous shrub, 3-5 ft. high, with silky pinnate leaves and racemes of pale-red flowers. Increased by seeds and cuttings. ...
-Helianthemum (Sun Rose)
A genus closely related to the Cistus, and having several species of shrubby plants suitable for dry sunny places. In most cases the flowers are yellow with a dark crimson or purple blotch at the base...
-Hibiscus Syriacus (Althoea Frutex)
An ornamental deciduous Syrian shrub, 6-8 ft. high, with lobed and toothed leaves, and Mallow-like purple flowers in August and September, with a crimson spot at the base of the petals. There are whit...
-Hippophae Rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn)
A fine deciduous British shrub or small tree with somewhat spiny branches, narrow silvery leaves, and masses of orange-coloured berries on the female plants during the autumn and winter months. Flouri...
-Hymenanthera Crassifolia (Fig. 425 )
An ornamental New Zealand shrub, 2-4 ft. high, resembling a white-berried Cotoneaster when in fruit in autumn. It flourishes in sandy peat and loam, and is increased from cuttings or seeds. Quite hard...
-Hypericum
Of the 160 species known only a few are of commercial value. Some of the best known are Androscemum, the Common British Tutsan or Sweet Amber, 1-2 ft. high, remarkable for the scent of its dried leave...
-Idesia Polycarpa
A rather tender Chinese tree, with large heart-shaped serrated leaves, and long drooping racemes of yellowish flowers - the males on one plant, the females on another. Increased by cuttings under glas...
-Ilex Aquifolium (Holly)
The Common Holly and its numerous varieties are always favourites, owing to their ornamental glossy-green, silver, or golden foliage, and their masses of scarlet or orange-yellow berries in winter. Th...
-Indigofera Gerardiana (Floribunda)
A pretty Leguminous shrub, 2-3 ft. high, with slender arching shoots, pinnate grey-green leaves, and erect racemes of rose-purple flowers from July to September. Grows in any good garden soil, and qui...
-Jasminum
Several hardy species are grown for trailing or rambling purposes, and are raised from cuttings or layers. The winter Jasmine, nudiflorum, with yellow flowers on bare stems from November and December ...
-Juglans
The Common Walnut (J. regia), from western Asia, is the best-known kind, and is referred to in more detail in Vol. Ill, p. 206, as a fruit tree. Other valuable ornamental Walnuts are nigra, 60-100 ft....
-Kalmia
Ornamental evergreen shrubs from North America, of which the best-known kinds are angtustifolia, the Sheep Laurel, 2-3 ft. high, with oblong leaves and corymbs of purple or crimson bell-shaped flowers...
-Kerria (Corchorus) Japonica
A pretty Japanese shrub, 3-5 ft. high, with green stems, lance-shaped serrate leaves, and orange-yellow flowers. There is a good double-flowered form (flore pleno), a white-flowered one (alba), and on...
-Koelpeuteria Paniculata
A handsome Chinese deciduous shrub, 10-15 ft. high, with oddly pinnate leaves, that become yellow, bronze, and purple in autumn. The yellow flowers are borne in panicles 2-3 ft. long in summer. Increa...
-Laburnum Vulgare
The Common Laburnum is well known by its grey-green leaflets and drooping racemes of bright yellow Pea-like flowers in April and May. There are several varieties, including aureum, with golden leaves;...
-Laurus Nobilis (Sweet Bay Laurel)
This well-known evergreen with aromatic deep-green leathery leaves is grown largely in tubs, etc, on the Continent and cut into various shapes, principally mop-head standards and pyramids, which are l...
-Lavender (Lavandula Vera)
Sweet Lavender is an important crop commercially in the neighbourhood of Mitcham, Surrey, and in parts of Hertfordshire around Hitchin and Elsenham. Small plants are largely grown for sale by many n...
-Leycesteria Formosa
A fine deciduous Himalayan shrub, 4-10 ft. high, with green hollow stems, ovate leaves, and drooping racemes of white tubular flowers with conspicuous leafy, purplish bracts. It grows in any soil and ...
-Ligustrum (Privet)
The Common British Privet, vulgare, is largely grown for hedging and game coverts, and has several varieties, including a broad-leaved one, buxifolium; one with golden-yellow instead of purple-black b...
-Liquidambar Styraciflua (Sweet Gum Tree)
A beautiful North American tree, 30-50 ft. high, with lobed Maple-like leaves which become highly coloured in autumn. L. orientalis, 10-20 ft., is another species. Grows well in ordinary soil, and is ...
-Liriodendron Tulipifera (Tulip Tree)
This is the beautiful North American White Wood, easily recognized by its grey-brown bark, lobed leaves with the tips apparently cut off, and the soft yellow-green Tuliplike flowers at the tips of the...
-Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
A large and somewhat mixed genus of shrubby and climbing, evergreen and deciduous plants from Europe, Asia, and North America. The shrubby or Tree Honeysuckles include such species as fragrantissima, ...
-Magnolia
This genus contains several fine flowering trees or shrubs, mostly deciduous, but evergreen in such as glauca and grandiflora, the latter being well known for its large shining-green Laurel-like leave...
-Morus (Mulberry)
Three species - alba, nigra, and rubra - are stocked in nurseries, and are good for fruiting or ornamental purposes. The White and Black Mulberries are natives of the East, but the Red Mulberry (rubra...
-Myrtus Communis (Myrtle)
There are many varieties of the Common European Myrtle, differing chiefly in the length and width of the leaves, but all are beautiful evergreen shrubs with masses of white blossoms and long stamens d...
-Nandina Domestica
A handsome Chinese and Japanese evergreen shrub with pinnate leaves and panicles of small white flowers. Rather tender. Increased by cuttings of the half-ripened shoots under glass. ...
-Neviusia Alabamensis
A small North American shrub with ovate-oblong serrate leaves and white or yellow-green flowers with numerous conspicuous stamens. It is rather tender, and is propagated by cuttings or layers. ...
-Nuttallia Cerasiformis
A deciduous Californian shrub with oblong leaves and drooping racemes of small white flowers in March and April. Increased by layers, suckers, cuttings, and seeds. ...
-Oleapia
Of the eighty-five species known only a few are grown in anything like large numbers. The New Zealand Daisy Bush (0. Haasti), is probably the hardiest and best known with its grey-green Box-like leave...
-Osmanthus Aquifolium
This handsome evergreen Japanese shrub, 4-6 ft. high, is easily mistaken for a green-leaved Holly owing to its deep shining-green prickly-toothed leaves, especially the variety called ilicifolius. The...
-Paeonia Moutan (Tree Paeony)
This fine and somewhat tender Chinese and Japanese shrub, 4-5 ft., with divided leaves and pink flowers in May, is grown in many varieties now, the colours ranging from white to rose, salmon, lilac, m...
-Paliurus Aculeatus (Christ's Thorn)
A prickly Mediterranean shrub having ovate 3-nerved leaves and small greenish-yellow flowers. Increased by layers, root cuttings, and seeds. ...
-Parrotia Persica
A pretty Persian tree with ovate-oblong leaves, which become finely coloured in autumn. The flowers appear in February, and are conspicuous by the crimson stamens. Increased by layers. ...
-Passiflora Ccerulea (Passion Flower)
A well-known South American climber with lobed leaves and curious starry flowers the petals of which vary from white to pale blue and rose red. The variety Constance Elliott, with white flowers, is ...
-Paulownia Imperialis
A fine deciduous Japanese tree, 40 ft. or more high, with large heart-shaped leaves and clusters of purple-violet Foxglovelike flowers spotted inside with purple brown, rarely seen in Britain. It is c...
-Periploca Grseca
A quick-growing shrubby climber with ovate or lance-shaped leaves, and hairy green-and-black flowers with a strong odour. Increased by layers and cuttings. ...
-Pernettya
This genus contains a few species of dwarf evergreen shrubs with deep-green leathery leaves, small white flowers, and masses of variously coloured berries in autumn and winter. They are excellent plan...
-Philadelphus (Mock Orange, Seringa)
Ornamental deciduous shrubs, mostly easy to grow in ordinary garden soil, and remarkable for their masses of four-petalled pure-white flowers, with masses of golden-knobbed stamens in the centre. Amon...
-Phillyrea Vilmoriniana (Decora)
A splendid evergreen shrub, closely related to the Ash and Privet, 6-10 ft. high, from Asia Minor, with deep-green leathery Laurel-like leaves 4 to 6 in. long. The small white flowers are sometimes su...
-Phlomis Fruticosa (Jerusalem Sage)
A Mediterranean shrub, 2-4 ft. high, with wrinkled leaves, woolly-white beneath, and whorls of showy yellow flowers. Increased by seeds and cuttings. ...
-Photinia
A genus of Rosaceous shrubs, of which the best-known members are japonica (Eriobotrya), the Japanese Loquat, an ornamental evergreen, 10-20 ft. high, with large oblong deeply veined leaves and racemes...
-Pittosporum
A genus of ornamental evergreen shrubs, quite hardy in the very mildest parts of the kingdom, where they attain a height of 10-20 ft. The best kinds are Buchanani, Tobira, crassifolium, and undulatum....
-Platanus (Plane)
The American Plane (P. occidentalis) is a fine deciduous tree, rarely seen. What is known as the London Plane is a form of the Common or Oriental Plane (P. orientalis) called acerifolia, recognized ...
-Populus (Poplar)
Several kinds of Poplar are largely grown, being used as windbreaks, screens, etc. They flourish in almost any soil, but prefer damp situations. The most common kinds in commerce are as follows: P. al...
-Prunus (Plum)
There are several species of flowering or ornamental Plums (as distinct from the fruit-bearing kinds), and a good trade is done in them. The Cherry or Myrobalan Plum (P. cerasifera), from the Caucasus...
-Ptelea Trifoliata (Hop Tree)
An ornamental North American tree or shrub, 10-15 ft. high, with trifoliate leaves, and clusters of small greenish-white flowers followed by winged hop-like seed pods. The variety aurea has golden you...
-Pyrus
This genus not only includes the Apple, Pear, Quince, and Medlar, but also several fine ornamental flowering trees and shrubs. The North American Chokeberry (P. arbutifolia) (fig. 432) grows about 10 ...
-Quercus (Oak)
There are several species of Oak, some evergreen, some deciduous, but all more or less valuable and ornamental timber trees. Among the evergreen Oaks are the well-known Holm or Holly Oak (Q. Ilex), f...
-Rhamnus (Buckthorn)
Of the sixty species known, only two or three are commercially valuable. The Common British Buckthorn (R. catharticus), 5-10 ft. high, with ovate serrate leaves; the Black Dogwood (R. Frangula), with ...
-Rhododendron
The trade in Rhododendrons is extensive, and of late years many fine garden forms have been raised. Even the commonest kinds are gorgeous when carrying their clusters of tubular or bell-shaped flowers...
-Rhodotypos Kerrioides
A pretty Japanese shrub with deeply serrated leaves and white flowers in May. Increased by layers, division, or cuttings. ...
-Rhus (Sumach)
There are some 120 species in this genus, mostly shrubs or low trees, with graceful foliage, many with resinous, caustic, or even poisonous juice. R. cotinoides (fig. 433), the Chittam Wood, grows 2...
-Ribes (Currant)
The best-known flowering kinds are aureum, 3-8 ft. high, golden yellow; sanguineum, the well-known North American Flowering Currant, of which there are several varieties, like albidum, white; atro-r...
-Robinia
Quick - growing Acacia-like trees, with graceful pinnate leaves and clusters of pea-like flowers. R. hispida, the Rose Acacia, grows up to 15 ft. high, and has the young branches covered with bristly ...
-Rose
Besides the garden varieties of Roses there are now many natural species in which a trade is done. These include the Sweet Brier (R. rubiginosa) and the many lovely varieties of Penzance Briers that...
-Roses For Profit
The trade in plants and flowers to-day is enormous. Hundreds of nurserymen in the British Islands, on the Continent, and in America are busily engaged not only in propagating hundreds of thousands of ...
-Propagation Of Roses
This business is commercially in the hands chiefly of nurserymen, although not a few market gardeners and private individuals also indulge in it. The stocks principally used by British growers are the...
-Budding Roses
In the open air this may be done from the end of July up to the end of September almost the later date being preferable after a hot and rainless summer. Expert budders know exactly the best buds to se...
-Grafting Roses
Thousands of Roses are grafted under glass each year between January and March, both on the Brier and Manetti stocks, for the trade in pot Roses. The stocks are lifted from the open and placed in a ge...
-Rose Propagation By Eyes
Besides budding and grafting, and cuttings of the ripened shoots in October and November, Roses may also be propagated during the summer months from eyes. These are selected from mature shoots of the ...
-Varieties Of Roses
Although there are thousands of varieties of Roses mentioned in trade catalogues, it would be a great mistake for the market grower, or the seller of plants only, to attempt to stock the lot. Some var...
-Roses In Pots For Market
Prior to the coming of Crimson Rambler and that greater following of varieties more or less nearly allied, and of which this popular sort proved to be the forerunner, Roses in pots for market work wer...
-Preparing The Plants
From what has been said of trained specimens and the like it should be clear that a season or more of preparation is required before the plants are in a condition for forcing, or even capable of produ...
-Hybrid Perpetuals
The true perpetual flowering Roses of those we have named is the Tea or Hybrid Tea, the varieties of the present group being rarely so. These, like those of the Rambler class, require a season of pr...
-Potting Up Maidens
There is no time in the year to equal the first half of October for potting up all maiden plants from the open ground. At the time stated the new root fibres are most active, and the plants quickly ta...
-Temperatures And Mildew
These are not infrequently first cousins. Aided by the constant use of the syringe and the stuffiness of the houses mildew will spread like wild-fire. A drier overhead method of treatment, freer venti...
-Long-Stemmed Roses
Pot-grown Roses for market represent but one phase of the subject, and thousands of long-stemmed Roses result from planted-out specimens. These, however, cannot be started into growth so early as pot-...
-Popular Varieties
Were I asked to name the most popular of market Roses I should say, without hesitation, Madame Abel Chatenay, in addition to which one might take Niphetos, The Bride, Bridesmaid, Catherine Mermet, Sun...
-Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary)
A popular South European shrub, 6-8 ft. high, with narrow grey-green leaves, whitish beneath, and spikes of whitish or pale-purple flowers. It grows well in ordinary soil in warm sheltered spots, and ...
-Rubus (Bramble)
Only a few of the 100 species of Bramble are dealt in commercially. They are mostly of climbing or trailing habit, and require the support of stakes, etc, but there are a few shrubby or bushy kinds. O...
-Ruscus Aculeatus (Butchers' Broom)
A native evergreen plant with flattened leaflike branches or cladodes (see Vol. I, p. 41) that bear the small greenish-white flowers, which in the female plants are followed by bright-red (or rarely y...
-Salix (Willow)
All the Willows are valuable ornamentally and economically, and possess the advantage of growing well in almost any soil, although they prefer a moist loam to develop thoroughly. The White or Huntingd...
-Sambucus Nigra (Elder)
This well-known ornamental British tree, with very pithy wood, gracefully cut leaves, and flat trusses of pure-white flowers, has many varieties, of which laciniata, with very deeply cut leaves, and a...
-Santolina Chamaecyparissus (Cotton Lavender)
A greyish-white composite, 2-3 ft. high, with very narrow leaves, and globular heads of yellow flowers in June and July. It grows in any poor soil almost, and is increased by cuttings. ...
-Skimmia
A genus of dwarf evergreen shrubs with leathery shiny leaves, and small white fragrant flowers, followed by red berries. The best-known kinds are: 8. Fortunei(often called japonica), and 8. japonica, ...
-Sophora Japonica
A fine Japanese deciduous tree, 40-50 ft. high, resembling the False Acacia (Robinia) in appearance, with its deep-green pinnate leaves and creamy-white flowers. There is a weeping form, pendula, whic...
-Spartium Junceum (Spanish Broom)
An ornamental South European shrub, 6 ft. high, with twiggy stems and large bright-yellow Pea-like flowers in late summer. It grows in any soil almost, and may be increased by seeds or cuttings. There...
-Spiraea
There are nearly forty species of shrubby Spiraeas, all beautiful when in bloom, and all easily grown in ordinary garden soil. They are raised chiefly by cuttings of the ripened wood, the sturdier kin...
-Staphylea Colchica (Bladder Nut)
A distinct Caucasian shrub, 4-5 ft. high, with serrated leaflets and erect branching racemes of white flowers. S. pinnata, (Job's Tears; St. Anthony's Nuts), 6-12 ft. high, produces its white flowers ...
-Symphoricarpos Racemosus (Snowberry)
A strong-growing shrub, 4-6 ft. or more high, with oval leaves and loose spikes of small funnel-shaped pinkish flowers from July to September, succeeded by large white berries. S. occidentalis (the Wo...
-Syringa (Lilac)
Apart from the many lovely garden varieties and hybrids of the Common Lilac mentioned below there are a few natural species in which a trade is done. Amongst these may be mentioned S. amurensis, 5-6 f...
-Tamarix
A small genus of ornamental feathery-looking shrubs with twiggy stems and small scale-like leaves. The Common British Tamarisk (T. gallica) grows up to 12 ft. high, and is largely used for seaside pla...
-Tecoma (Bignonia) Radicans
A climbing North American shrub with orange-scarlet foxglove-like flowers in summer. Sandy loam and warm positions. Increased by cuttings of the ripened shoots and by layers. ...
-Tilia (Lime)
The Common Lime (T. vulgaris - also known as T. europoea) is a fine ornamental tree largely used for streets and for making avenues in large gardens and parks. There is a variegated form having creamy...
-Ulex Europaeus (Furze, Gorse, Whin)
This prickly Leguminous evergreen is well known on commons, wayside banks, etc, throughout the British Islands. The double-flowered variety (flore pleno) when covered with yellow bloom is a fine pictu...
-Ulmus Campestris (Elm)
The Common British Elm or Aume attains a height of over 100 ft., and the trunk a girth of over 20 ft. The ovate-oblong leaves are 2-3 in. long and somewhat pointed. There are several varieties, includ...
-Vaccinium
This genus contains about 100 species of erect or trailing evergreen or deciduous shrubs chiefly remarkable for their berried fruits black, red, or purple in colour. The plants like a moist peaty soil...
-Veronica
Amongst the dwarfer shrubby kinds grown for rock gardens are carnosula, chathamica, Bidwelli, cupressoides, epacridea, Haasti, Hectori, Hulkeana, Lyalli, lycopodioides, pimelioides, salicornoides; all...
-Viburnum
This genus contains about eighty species of ornamental trees and shrubs, deciduous and evergreen. The Wayfaring Tree (V. Lantana) is a British shrub, 12-20 ft. high, has broadly oblong heart-shaped wr...
-Vinca (Periwinkle)
The larger kind, V. major, with large blue flowers, and the lesser one, V. minor, similar but smaller in all its parts, are well-known trailing evergreen shrubs with ovate glossy leaves. There is a wh...
-Viscum Album (Mistletoe)
This native semi-parasite flourishes on Limes, Poplars, Hawthorns, Maples, Mountain Ashes, Peaches, Robinias, and Apple trees, but is not encouraged in British orchards. Vast quantities of the forked ...
-Vitex Agnus-Castus
An aromatic South European shrub, 6-12 ft. high, with lance-shaped pointed leaves, whitish beneath, and spikes of pale-lilac or violet flowers at the ends of the shoots. Increased by cuttings of the r...
-Vitis (Including Ampelopsis)
A large genus of climbing or trailing deciduous shrubs with lobed or divided leaves which in many species assume brilliant tints of crimson purple, orange red, etc, in the autumn. Fig. 448. - Viti...
-Wistaria
The best-known species is W. chinensis, a rampant deciduous woody climber, with pinnate leaves and drooping racemes of pale-purple Pea-like flowers in early summer. There is a white-flowered variety, ...
-Xanthoceras Sorbifolia
A beautiful Chinese deciduous shrub, up to 15 ft. high, with pinnate leaves like those of the Mountain Ash, and terminal clusters of white flowers streaked with purple red. It is hardy in the mildest ...
-Yucca Gloriosa
This is the best of the hardy Yuccas. It grows over 6 ft. high, and has dense rosettes of evergreen grey-green sword-like leaves up to 3 ft. in length, above which tower the thick branching spikes of ...
-Section XXXI. Conifers And Taxads
Amongst forest and ornamen-tal trees and shrubs, members of the Conifer family hold a deservedly high place. Many of them, like the Silver Firs (Abies) and the Spruce Firs (Picea), the Larches, Pines,...
-Abies (Silver Fir)
The species have been greatly confused with the Piceas and the Pines, and the reader will find the names here given sometimes under one genus sometimes under another in catalogues. To put an end to th...
-Araucaria Imbricata (Monkey-Puzzle Tree)
This noble-looking Chilian Pine, with spiny-tipped and spirally arranged leaves, is well known. It attains a height of 150 ft. in a native state, but rarely more than 50 ft. in the British Islands. T...
-Cedrus (Cedar)
The best-known species are the Deodar (0. Deodara), largely grown, 150-200 ft., Himalayas; the Atlas Cedar (C. atlantica), of which there are several varieties, including a silvery one, argentea, and ...
-Cephalotaxus
A genus of Japanese and Chinese Taxads, not largely grown, and including drupacea, 20-30 ft; Fortunei, 40-50 ft.; and pedun-culata (Podocarpus koraiana), 15-20 ft., with a variety fastigiata, resembli...
-Cryptomeria Japonica
A beautiful Chinese and Japanese evergreen, 130-150 ft., with several varieties, including elegans, viridis or Lobbi, nana, and spiralis. ...
-Cunning'Hamia Sinensis
A remarkable Chinese tree, 40-50 ft. high, rather too tender for most parts of the kingdom. There is a blue-green variety, glauca. ...
-Cupressus (Cypress)
Botanically this genus includes Chamoecy-paris and Retinospora, but the latter is kept distinct in this work. Amongst the Cupressus proper, Lawson's Cypress (C. Lawsoniana), from California, and its m...
-Ginkgo Biloba (Salisburia Adiantifolia)
This is the deciduous Maidenhair Tree of Japan and China. It grows up to 80 ft. high, and has leathery fan-shaped leaves veined like the pinnules of a Maidenhair Fern. It is perfectly hardy in most ...
-Juniperus
There are about thirty species of Juniper known, mostly ornamental and easily grown in moist soil. They are increased by seeds and cuttings, and choice varieties are grafted on stocks of the common sp...
-Larix Europsea (Common Larch)
A well-known deciduous conifer, 80-100 ft. high, grown in hundreds of thousands for forest purposes. There are several varieties, including pendula, with weeping habit. Owing to lack of cultivation an...
-Libocedrus Decurrens
A beautiful Californian Conifer, 50-150 ft. high in a native state. It is often erroneously called Thuya gigantea, but may be recognized by its small, linear, bright glossy leaves, imbricating in four...
-Picea (Spruce Fir)
The plants mostly known under this name in nurseries are referred to under the genus Abies in this work (see p. 59), and, with strange perversity, the Piceas proper are known as Abies in nurseries. Th...
-Pinus
The Pines constitute a large genus of evergreen trees divisible into three natural groups, viz. (1) those usually having two leaves in a sheath, such as the Corsican Pine (P. Laricio), and the Scots F...
-Podocarpus Andina (Prumnopitys Elegans)
A beautiful Chilian Taxad, 50-60 ft. high, pyramidal in habit, with glossy-green leaves, whitish beneath, and grape-like fruits. ...
-Pseudotsug'A (Abies, Picea) Douglasi (Douglas Fir)
This valuable timber tree, which attains a height of 300 ft. in North America, grows quickly, and is raised in thousands from seeds. There are varieties known as glauca, pendula, taxifolia, Standishi,...
-Retinospora
Although really forms of Cupressus, the Retinosporas are so distinct in appearance and habit that they are kept separate for business purposes. A great trade is done in varieties of the Japanese C. ob...
-Saxegothaea Conspicua (Prince Albert's Yew)
A handsome Yewlike Taxad from the Chilian and Patagonian mountains, where it grows 30 ft. high. It has a graceful and drooping habit, and is becoming better known. ...
-Sciadopitys Verticillata (Umbrella Or Parasol Pine)
A beautiful and distinct Taxad from Japan, where it attains a height of 100-150 ft. The branches and the leaves upon them radiate like the ribs of an umbrella (fig. 453). Fig. 453. - Sciadopity...
-Sequoia ( Wellingtonia) Gigantea
The Mammoth Tree of California. This tree grows up to 350 or 400 ft. high, with trunk 20-40 ft. in diameter in a wild state, and is said to attain an age of 2000 to 3000 years. It rarely grows taller ...
-Taxodium Distichum (Deciduous Or Bald Cypress)
A handsome deciduous tree, 80-150 ft. in the United States. It flourishes in water, or in marshy and swampy places. There are several varieties, one of the best being pendulum, with slender drooping b...
-Taxus Baccata (Yew)
The deep and sombre-green Yew is largely grown as a hedge plant, and is sold in thousands annually. There are many varieties, of which the Irish Yew (fastigiata or hibernica) is the best known on acco...
-Thuja (Arbor Vitae)
Two species, T. gigantea (T. Lobbi) and T. occidentalis, the American Arbor Vita3, and their varieties, are chiefly grown. T. gigantea is a fine pyramidal tree, quick in growth and excellent for makin...
-Torpeya
This genus contains a few strong-smelling Yew-like evergreens, of which the best known are californica (or Myristica), grandis, nucifera, and taxifolia - the last-named being known as the Stinking Ced...
-Tsuga
The members of this genus are usually known either as Abies or Picea. The best known are the Hemlock Spruce (T. canadensis), 70-110 ft. in a native state, with feathery branches. There are several var...
-Section XXXII. Vegetable Growing For Market. 1. General Considerations
When the growing of vegetables is contemplated, questions of market and carriage assume an importance that did not belong to them so long as the cultivation of fruit was alone under consideration. The...
-Horse Versus Motor
On the question of horse against motor for transport, it may be set down that within a distance of 10 ml. the supremacy of the horse is unchallenged, from 12 to 15 ml. the motor has an advantage, from...
-Gluts
But the market is sometimes glutted, and the increasing frequency of the gluts forces upon one the question whether the process of concentration has not gone far enough, and whether there are not plac...
-Rent
The rent to be paid will depend upon the quality of the land and its distance from market. The rich land of the old Fulham market gardens, within 6 ml. of Covent Garden, was cheaper at 7 per acre tha...
-Deep Culture
Deep tillage is a splendid thing in the cultivation of vegetables; but before the market gardener, who wants to keep clear of the bankruptcy court, listens to the advice of those who would advise the ...
-Manure
The results of the most recent experiments go to show that the best crops are obtained from a moderate quantity of stable manure, supplemented by a judicious combination of chemicals. Near large centr...
-Natural Groups
In the following pages the various vegetable crops are described chiefly in alphabetical order for the sake of convenient reference. It may be as well, however, to set them out in their natural groups...
-2. Artichokes. The Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus Tuberosus)
This tuberous-rooted plant is closely related to the common Sunflower, and resembles it in appearance. Except in very hot seasons and in the most favoured spots, however, it rarely flowers in the Brit...
-The Globe Artichoke (Gynara Scolymus)
Although belonging to the same family as the Jerusalem Artichoke, this plant is quite distinct in appearance, and resembles a large and coarse-growing grey-green thistle. It is gradually winning its w...
-Chinese Artichoke
This hardy perennial from China and Japan belongs to the Labiate or Dead-nettle family, and is bo-tanically known as Stachys tuberifera. It has nothing to do with the Artichokes proper, but the taste ...
-3. Asparagus
The Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a wild plant in Essex and Lincolnshire and other parts of England, and is cultivated for the fat and fleshy young stems. These are made up into bundles, 1000 t...
-3. Asparagus. Part 2
Cutting The Asparagus should not be cut until the third year after planting, and then it will be wise to pass over the smaller buds and leave off cutting early in June. The cutting is done with a to...
-3. Asparagus. Part 3
Winter Treatment After the haulm has quite died back in the autumn it can be cut and burnt. Then is a good time to give a coat of well-rotted manure, thirty to forty loads to the acre, which can be f...
-4. Beans. The Broad Bean (Vicia Faba Or Faba Vulgaris)
The Broad Bean is an annual supposed to have been introduced originally from Egypt. According to the Standard Cyclopaedia of Modern Agriculture, nearly 600,000 ac. of land were devoted to Bean culture...
-The Runner Bean (Phaseolus Multiflorus)
Although cultivated as an annual, the Runner Bean is really a perennial plant, and produces large Dahlia-like roots. It is a native of South America, and like its cousin, the Dwarf or French Bean, is ...
-The French Or Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris)
This was introduced from South America, and is now extensively grown all over the civilized world. As a rule, the seeds are sown too thickly, with the result that the crop suffers. By sowing in drills...
-French Climbing Beans
Some market growers favour Climbing French Beans for an early greenhouse crop. The seeds are sown in February or March, in 8.in. or 10.in. pots, or in nicely prepared soil in the greenhouse beds and b...
-5. Beetroot
The Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) belongs to the same family as the Spinach, but is grown for its tap roots in market gardens. It is a somewhat exhaustive crop, and from 12 to 16 tons of roots may be regar...
-6. Borecole Or Kale
What is popularly known as the Scotch or Curly Kale is a useful hardy winter vegetable, sown in seed beds in April or May, and can be planted out up to middle August. It can be sent to market as soon ...
-7. Broccoli
The Broccoli (Brassica oleracea botrytis asparagoides) is closely related to the Cauliflower, but is hardier. The white or creamy-headed varieties are frequently mistaken for Cauliflowers, but they ap...
-8. Brussels Sprouts
This highly esteemed vegetable (Brassica oleracea bullata gemmiferci) owes its name to the fact that it was first grown in the gardens round Brussels some five or six hundred years ago. The Sprouts, ...
-9. Cabbages
The many varieties of Cabbage have been evolved from the wild Brassica oleracea, a Cruciferous weed found growing wild on the sea cliffs of the south-west of England and Wales, the Channel Islands, et...
-Spring Cabbages
In following the cycle of the Cabbage year, it will, perhaps, be the more convenient to commence with the preparation for the autumn-planted, spring-gathered Cabbage. The preparation of the seed bed f...
-Red Cabbage
Those growers who deem it wise to grow as large a variety of crops as possible will not neglect this pickling vegetable. It has the disadvantage of being liable to club, like the other members of th...
-Cabbages Under Glass
Where large unheated greenhouses exist, some growers utilize them during the winter season for a crop of Cabbage. The seeds are sown in August, and the plants are ready to be put in during October and...
-Savoy Cabbage
This, like Scotch or Curly Kale, is a useful hardy winter vegetable which wants sharp weather to make it palatable. The seed bed for Savoys should not be made before May, for it is of no use getting t...
-10. Carrots
The Carrot has been developed from the wild British Daucus Carota, a hardy biennial of the Umbellifer family. As a farm and market-garden crop it is highly valued for its taproots, the coarser and lar...
-11. Cauliflowers
This curious vegetable (Brassica oleracea botrytis caulifiora), deveioped from the deformed inflorescence of some variety of the Cabbage or Kale was known to the Greeks and Romans, but was not introdu...
-12. Celery
The cultivation of this vegetable (Apium graveolens) has undergone a veritable revolution during the last twenty years. Time was when large gangs of men might be seen in early morning or late evening ...
-Celeriac Or Turnip - Rooted Celery (Apium Graveolens Ra-Pacea)
This differs from the ordinary Celery in having the stems swollen into a somewhat irregular turnip-like mass as shown (fig. 471), The roots attain a weight of 3 or 4 lb., and are cut up into slices ...
-13. Cucumbers
The Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an East Indian annual, having roughish, trailing, angular fleshy stems bearing large angular and heart-shaped coarsely toothed leaves, roughish to the touch like the ...
-13. Cucumbers. Part 2
Temperature At no period in its growth does the Cucumber require a higher temperature than 90 F. to produce its maximum amount of growth and fruit; and it may be taken that a temperature from 70...
-13. Cucumbers. Part 3
Topdressing When the new roots are seen coming through the surface of the soil it becomes necessary to add fresh compost to the mounds. An inch or so all over of a fairly rich gritty soil will be suf...
-13. Cucumbers. Part 4
Shading Although the Cucumber comes from hot and sunny climes, nevertheless it must be shaded slightly from even our British summer jmn. If the vines or stems are trained to wires 1 ft. or 9 in. fr...
-13. Cucumbers. Part 5
Varieties There are many varieties known, but only a few are grown for market work, the favourites being Telegraph and Bochford's Market. Profits The profits obtainable from Cucumber growing cannot...
-Ridge Cucumbers
Certain kinds of Cucumbers may be grown well in the open air during the summer months, and if grown extensively, as they are in some places, may realize profits ranging from 20 to 80 per acre. The s...
-Insect Pests Of Cucumbers
The worst insect pests of the Cucumber are Thrips, Greenfly (aphides), Red Spider, slugs, woodlice, and Eelworm. Greenfly are easily kept in check by syringing the young plants occasionally with any o...
-Eelworms
These minute eel-like pests often play great havoc with Cucumbers and Tomatoes in market nurseries. They are the outcome of a pest known as Heterodera radicicola, and are hatched in the soil from minu...
-Fungoid Diseases
Amongst these are Mildew, Leaf Spot, and Sleepy Disease. The Mildew appears in the form of a whitish efflorescence on the leaves, but does not cause much injury. It may be checked by syringing with wa...
-14. Endive
This salad vegetable (Cichorium Endivia) may be mentioned along with the Lettuce. The demand for it is certainly not very extensive yet, but as the eating of salads seems to be becoming more general a...
-15. Indian Corn Or Maize
The Maize plant (Zea Mays) is an American annual with many varieties. In the United States something like 3,000,000,000 bus. of corn are grown annually on about 70,000,000 ac. of land lying mostly i...
-16. Kohl-Rabi
This distinct-looking vegetable (Brassica oleracea Caulo-rapa) is about halfway between a Cabbage and a Turnip. The stem is swollen into a roundish turnip-like mass or bulb which varies from 3 to 8 ...
-17. Leeks
This widely used vegetable (Allium, Porrum) is increasing in importance since the practice has spread of using it as a boiled vegetable and not only as a flavouring. It requires rich land to come a go...
-18. Lettuces
This vegetable (Lactuca sativa) has been of late much in the public mind by reason of the booming of what is called French Gardening. The culture of the Lettuce has been practised in France for cen...
-Spring Lettuce
For early spring Lettuces in the open ground the earliest are the hardy varieties. For Cos Hick's Hardy White, and for Cabbage Stanstead Park or Lees Immense are best. These are sown in late August th...
-19. Mint
Mint (Mentha viridis), like Parsley, is a crop of which sales of great bulk cannot be made, and which does not suit the grower whose instincts run to large breadths of a few crops. It is nevertheless ...
-20. Mushrooms
Mushroom growing is reputed to be rather a gamble, owing to the doubtful results, and it is certain that success is not obtained unless the grower devotes a great deal of time and attention to every d...
-Indoor Mushroom Beds
The next step is the laying down of the beds. Taking flat ones first, it may be stated that whether prepared in Mushroom houses, pits, or glass-houses, the method of laying down is the same, the only ...
-Spawning The Mushroom Beds
It is worth while giving a little attention to the condition of the spawn; for a hot or wet bed hard cakes do best; for a cold or dry bed, green or soft cakes should be chosen. Cheap spawn is not nece...
-Casing The Mushroom Beds
For the casing or landing, good virgin loam should be used if obtainable. If access can be had to a field, pare off the turf in slabs 1 ft. square and 2 in. deep, take out 4 in. of soil, and replace t...
-Mushroom Picking
A damp-over should be given before picking; the Mushrooms are easier to clean after and keep better. For picking, several rows of boards running the length of the house will be necessary. These should...
-Outdoor Ridge Mushroom Beds
For these rather different treatment is required. The usual size of winter beds is 3 ft. high and 3 ft. wide. The manure is trodden down very firmly in 6-in. layers, the sides being dressed down to th...
-Cost Of Mushroom Production
It is very difficult to give an estimate as to what a crop of Mushrooms should cost to grow, or of what weight a given area should produce. The cost of manure and labour vary so much, and the skill an...
-Mushroom Diseases, &C
Mushrooms are subject to several diseases, one of the worst being caused by a fungus known as Hypomyces pemiciosus. This parasite spreads quickly, and distorts the Mushrooms into soft irregular masses...
-21. Onions
The Onion (Allium Cepa) is a hardy biennial bulbous plant, and originally came from central or western Asia. It is thought that the name has been derived from a Jewish city called Onion, which once ex...
-Onion Market Culture
This crop has the valuable advantage of being one of the few possible to a market gardener that need not be marketed at the moment of attaining maturity. A good crop of Onions well harvested will prov...
-Spring Onions
Considerable breadths of Onions are annually sown in the Evesham district, making a total of 150 to 200 ac. Generally the crop is a paying one, but occasionally prices are so low after the early part ...
-22. Parsley
It has been said that a market gardener's stand should never be without Parsley (Carum Petroselinum). Parsley is one of the vegetables of which few growers can manage to dispose of any great bulk, exc...
-23. Parsnips
The Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) has been grown since Roman times, and has no doubt been derived from the Wild Parsnip of Europe and Britain. Indeed this has been proved by Professor James Buckman, who ...
-24. Peas
This highly popular and widely grown vegetable (Pisum sativum), though cultivated in enormous quantities by farmers, who use it as a catch crop on whole summer fallows, and cast the produce on to the ...
-25. Potatoes
Although regarded by many as being almost exclusively a farmer's crop, the Potato receives considerable attention from the market gardener proper, both in the open air and under glass. Considering its...
-25. Potatoes. Continued
Some counties show much better results. Thus Bedford has an average of 958 tons; Ayrshire, 9.29 tons; Lancaster, 8 1/2 tons; Perth, Forfar, and Lanark, each over 8 tons. Reckoning the value at 3 per...
-Cultivation Of The Potato
Of late years much attention has been given to the best methods of cultivation, and experiments almost innumerable on manuring, spraying, and sprouting have been carried out by various agricultural sc...
-Cultivation Of The Potato. Part 2
Manurial Experiments On Seven Plots Plot. Manure Applied per Acre. Highest Yield. Lowest Yield. Cost of Manure. 8 d. I. No...
-Cultivation Of The Potato. Part 3
The Great Manurial Mistake In carrying out all these more or less elaborate manurial trials the fundamental error which naturally leads to utterly wrong conclusions, is the assumption that the soil i...
-Sprouting Potatoes
The practice of sprouting seed potatoes before planting them is gaining ground amongst farmers as well as gardeners. Shallow boxes or baskets of any description may be used for the purpose, but that m...
-Size Of Seed Potatoes
A good deal has been written on this subject, the main point being to discover whether it is more economical to plant large, small, cut, or medium-sized tubers. After many experiments and some years o...
-Planting Potatoes
Farmers and many market gardeners use special potato-planting machines for large areas. These machines work on the dredger principle, having an endless chain with a series of cups and hoppers, by mean...
-Distance Between The Potato Rows
For main-crop varieties it is very rarely one finds a greater distance than 2 ft. or 2 1/2 ft. between the rows, and from 12 to 15 in. between the sets in the rows. Still less space is allotted for ea...
-Potato Overcrowding And "Chats"
From a commercial point of view it is essential to secure as small a quantity of chats as possible in a potato crop. To secure this desirable result it is necessary to give sufficient space between th...
-"Cut" Versus "Whole" Potato Sets
This matter is frequently debated, but, so far as actual results go, there is very little to chose between good medium-sized sets (say about 3 oz. each) and cut sets of large potatoes, as may be seen ...
-Potato Earthing Up And Sunshine
Another point in potato culture intimately associated with the distance given between the rows and sets is the question of earthing up, and the direction. In experiments carried out with Myatt's Earl...
-Cost Of Potato Cultivation, Profits, &C
As stated at the commencement of this article, an average yield of 3 tons of potatoes per acre would not pay any grower. By judicious amounts spent in labour and cultivation it is possible, however, t...
-Potato Diseases
Of late years the diseases of Potatoes have attracted considerable attention, so much, indeed, that it has become quite usual to talk about various sprays and washes for eradicating or preventing them...
-Recipe I. Sulphate Of Copper And Washing Soda (Burgundy Mixture)
The mixture is made in the following: proportions: - 2 lb. sulphate of copper, 98 per cent purity. 2 1/2 lb. washing soda, 98 ,, 10 gal. of clean water. For large areas it is recommended to...
-Recipe II. Sulphate Of Copper And Lime
2 lb. sulphate of copper, 98 per cent purity. 1 lb. unslaked lime of the best quality. 10 gal. of clean water. This may be made up in a 40-gal. paraffin barrel also, using four times the quantity of ...
-Potato Scab
This is caused by Oospora scabies, a fungus that usually attacks the young tubers, forming scattered roughish patches or scabs on the surface, sometimes spreading all over. To prevent this disease fro...
-Black Scab of Warty Disease
This is also known as Canker and Cauliflower disease (fig. 487), the latter name arising from the fact that large irregular, crested, or mossy outgrowths, like pieces of dirty Cauliflower heads, are p...
-Winter Rot
This fungoid disease, caused by Nectria Solani, attacks stored potatoes, especially in moist or dark and warm situations. The skin begins to shrivel and shrink, and white patches of fungus appear on t...
-Kinds Of Potatoes To Grow
There is a vast difference between the man who grows Potatoes for private use and the one who grows for sale. In the first case quality before quantity is the maxim. In the second, quantity above all ...
-26. Radishes
This crop (Rapkanus sativus) needs light warm soil which has enjoyed high cultivation long enough to contain a good deal of humus. The secret of producing good Radishes is to grow them quickly; if the...
-26. Radishes. Continued
Radishes Under Glass Some modern market gardeners who have large unheated glasshouses utilize them during the winter and spring months for the production of early Radishes. One of the largest growers...
-27. Rhubarb
Probably with regard to no other crop that is grown by the market gardener does the treatment vary so much according to locality as in the case of Rhubarb (Rheum hybridum). In some places, particularl...
-28. Seakale
The Seakale (Crambe maritima) of commerce has been evolved by selection from the maritime plant that can be seen growing on the seashore. It is useless for edible purposes unless artificially treated,...
-28. Seakale. Continued
Natural Seakale For natural, Seakale is planted two rows 12 in. apart, with 12-in. spaces in the rows, and then alleys 3 ft. 6 in. in width. Down these alleys a crop of Lettuce can be planted in th...
-29. Shallot
The Shallot (Allium ascalonicwm) is a native of Ascalon in Palestine. It is closely related to the Onion, but is milder in flavour. The true Shallot, which has rather long grey-skinned bulbs, is rarel...
-30. Spinach
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is divided into winter and spring varieties. There is also a kind called New Zealand, which is grown for midsummer. It belongs to a different genus (see below). To take the...
-31. Tomatoes
Thirty-five years ago the Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was practically unknown as a marketable fruit in the British Islands. Here and there a market gardener would be found having a few plants as ...
-31. Tomatoes. Continued
Tomatoes Imported 1906. 1907. 1908. 1911. cwt. cwt. cwt. cwt. January 61,940 56,022 73,409 49,734 February ...
-Tomatoes In The Channel Islands
In the Channel Islands (Guernsey and Jersey) Tomato growing for market is practised extensively. In Guernsey the plants are grown chiefly under glass, but in Jersey they are mostly grown in the open a...
-Tomato Cultivation
The Tomato is not a difficult plant to grow. It will flourish in any good garden soil that is sweet and clean, and contains a fair amount of well-decayed organic material. It is a mistake to have the ...
-Tomato Cultivation. Part 2
Potting The young plants, being strong and sturdy, and growing steadily, will soon require more room than is available in the seed pans. Pots 3 in. across (or large 60's) may be used, and if a piece ...
-Tomato Cultivation. Part 3
Training In small houses the main stems are trained up beneath the glass until they reach the ridge board; the top is then pinched out. All side shoots - laterals as they are called - are suppresse...
-Tomato Cultivation. Part 4
Ventilation When Tomatoes are grown under glass it is essential to keep the atmosphere pure and fresh. This can only be done by proper ventilation Houses properly built will have plenty of ventilator...
-Tomato Winter Crops
The cultivation of Tomatoes as described above may be carried out in glasshouses without any artificial heat whatever during the summer months. If crops, however, are desired during the winter and ear...
-Outdoor Tomatoes
Except in such places as the Channel Islands, Devonshire and Cornwall, and the milder parts of Ireland, the cultivation of Tomatoes in the open air is attended with a certain amount of risk. The metho...
-Packing Tomatoes For Market
Tomatoes are packed in various ways for market. Around London these fruits are put up in half-bushel baskets holding about 20 lb. each, and are graded into firsts and seconds, and often into smalls ...
-Saving Tomato Seed
Many, if not most, growers like to save their own seed, especially when they happen to have a variety that seems to suit them particularly well. Whether it is better to save seed from early fruits or ...
-Tomato Diseases And Pests
The insect pests afflicting Tomatoes are not numerous, but some of them are exceedingly troublesome. Young plants are sometimes afflicted with Aphides and Ghost Flies, but these are easily checked by ...
-Fungoid Diseases Of Tomatoes
There are several diseases of the Tomato caused by various fungi, the most dangerous being: (1) Leaf Spot, (2) Black Stripe, (3) Sleepy Disease, and (4) the Black Blotch or bacterial disease of the fr...
-Market Varieties Of Tomato
Growers for market insist upon tomatoes having a good rich crimson-red colour, roundish billiard-ball-like shape and size, free-cropping qualities, large trusses, and a skin that is not too tender and...
-32. Turnips
The Turnip has developed from a hardy British biennial (Brassica Rajxi), and, with the Swede (B. campestris Rutabaga), constitutes a very important Cruciferous crop in all parts of the British Islands...
-33. Vegetable Marrow
The fruit of the Marrow (Cucurbita Pepo ovifera) is becoming more and more important as an article of food. As a forcing plant in the bush form it is very useful. Those who employ lights and boxes for...
-Section XXXIII. Sweet Herbs And Small Salads
From a commercial point of view the cultivation of herbs has sunk to a low ebb amongst market gardeners. Some thirty or forty years ago, however, many kinds were grown in large quantities between the ...
-Angelica (Angelica Archangelica)
This umbelliferous biennial or perennial grows upwards of 4 ft. high, and has large deeply-divided leaves and umbels of yellow flowers in roundish heads. It flourishes in rich, moist soil, and is rais...
-Balm (Melissa Officinalis)
A perennial Labiate about 1 1/2 ft. high, native of South Europe. The young shoots are used for seasoning and salads, and also in the manufacture of liqueurs and scents, as well as for making decoctio...
-Sweet Basil (Ocymum Basilicum)
This East Indian annual grows about 1 ft. high. It is raised from seeds sown in gentle heat in March and April, the seedlings being transferred to the open ground at the end of May or early in June, 6...
-Borage (Borago Officinalis)
An annual herb of the Forget-me-not family, 1 to 1 1/2 ft. high, with hairy stems and leaves, and blue, purplish, or white flowers. It grows in ordinary garden soil, and is raised from seeds sown in t...
-Burnet (Poterium Sanguisorba)
This hardy British perennial grows 1 to 2 ft. high, and its pinnate leaves having a peculiar Cucumber flavour, are sometimes used as a salad and in soups. It grows in any garden soil, and may be raise...
-Camomile Or Chamomile (Anthemis Nobilis)
At one time many acres were devoted to the culture of Camomile in the Mitcham district, between rows of Lettuces and other fairly quick-growing crops. The plants, easily recognized by their finely-div...
-Caper Bush (Camparis Spinosa)
A South European wiry and spiny-stemmed shrub 3 to 5 ft. high, with roundish glistening leaves, and white flowers 2 in. across. It can only be grown in the mildest and warmest parts of Britain. There ...
-Capsicum (Capsicum Annuum)
The well-known Chili Peppers are obtained from the seedpods of this plant, of which there are many varieties. In a green state the pods are used in pickles, salads, and for making Chili vinegar. When ...
-Caraway (Carum Carui)
The seeds of this European biennial of the Umbellifer family are well known for their use in confectionery, perfumery, and flavouring. The plant has a fleshy carrot-like root, and grows 1 to 2 ft. hig...
-Cardoon (Cynara Carduncu-Lus)
This perennial composite is a native of South Europe. It grows up to 6 ft. in height, and has large pinnate leaves, greyish-green above, almost white beneath. In some varieties there is a yellow or br...
-Chervil (Anthriscits Cere-Folium)
This South European annual is grown for its finely-divided leaves, which are used for flavouring soups, and for salads. The curled variety (fig. 502) has smaller foliage than the plain or common k...
-Chicory
Of late years the Chicory (Cichorium Intybus) has become fairly well known, chiefly in the form of its blanched leaves, which when forced in warm dark places are known as Borbe de Capucin. There are s...
-Chives (Allium Schoenoprasum)
This bulbous-rooted European perennial is grown for its slender fistular grass-like leaves, which are used in salads and soups, having a milder flavour than onions. It has clusters of pretty violet-re...
-Clary (Salvia Sclarea)
A woolly-haired biennial or perennial of the Labiate family, having broadly ovate grey-green wrinkled leaves, and tall spikes of white or lilac flowers. The leaves are used for seasoning soups, etc. T...
-Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum)
A hardy South European annual 2 ft. or more high, with divided leaves and umbels of small white flowers. The young leaves are said to be used for seasoning soups and salads, notwithstanding their stro...
-Cress
This quick-growing Persian annual (Lepidium sativum) is highly valued for the pungent flavour of its young and tender leaves and stalks. Seeds are sown several times during the season under glass on f...
-Dandelion
Owing perhaps largely to our greater intercourse with continental nations the once much-despised Dandelion (Taraxacum Dens-leonis) is now a crop worthy of the attention of some market gardeners. Indee...
-Dill (Anethum Graveolens)
An umbelliferous fennel-like annual or biennial, with leaves cut into thread-like segments, and having small yellow flowers. The leaves are used for flavouring, and the seeds are used as a condiment. ...
-Egg Plants Or Aubergines
Of late years the fruits of the Aubergine or Egg Plant (Solanum Melongena) have found their way into British markets. Some of the fruits are white and resemble an egg in shape, but others are longer a...
-Fennel (Famiculum Vulgare)
This South European perennial grows about 5 ft. high, and is known by its green thread-like leaves, the stalks of which are dilated to clasp the hollow stems at the base. The leaves are used for fish ...
-Garlic (Allium Sativum)
A hardy bulbous perennial from South Europe, highly esteemed on the Continent for its white-skinned or rose-tinted bulbs, which are much used in soups, and in other ways. Garlic may be grown much in t...
-Good King Henry (Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus)
A British perennial of the Spinach family. It grows up to 2 1/2 ft. high, and has long-stalked, arrow-shaped leaves rather thick and fleshy in texture, with a frosted or crystalline appearance on the ...
-Horehound (Marrubium Vulgare)
The leaves of this British perennial Labiate are used in cough remedies, and also for seasoning. The plant is 1 to 1 1/2 ft. high, with broadly-ovate wrinkled leaves, and tiers of white flowers. It gr...
-Horse-Radish (Cochlearia Armoracia)
This British perennial is a member of the Cabbage family, and is valued for its thickish roots. These are scraped and used with roast beef and in other ways as a condiment. The plants flourish in an...
-Hyssop (Hyssopus Officinalis)
An evergreen South European under-shrub with oblong lance-shaped leaves, and whorled spikes of white, blue, or pinkish flowers. The aromatic leaves and shoots are used as a condiment and for flavourin...
-Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra)
At one time Liquorice (fig. 509) was extensively grown in the Mitcham neighbourhood, but for years past it has not been a crop sufficiently remunerative to encourage development. It is a leguminous pl...
-Marigold (Calendula Officinalis)
This has already been referred to in Vol. II, p. 14. The flowers are used for colouring butter, flavouring soups, etc. Between June and September they are gathered and hung up in the shade to dry slow...
-Marjoram (Origanum Vulgare)
This British plant grows in almost any soil, and may be raised from seeds or division. The Pot Marjoram (0. Onites) is a native of Sicily, and is propagated from cuttings in early summer, or by divisi...
-Mint Or Spearmint (Mentha Viridis)
This British and European perennial is now cultivated extensively both in the open air and under glass by many market gardeners, and has been dealt with specially at p. 116. Peppermint (M. piperita), ...
-Mustard (Sinapis Alba)
This quick - growing European annual is usually grown with Cress (see p. 190), although another plant, Rape (Brassica Napus), owing to its somewhat milder flavour, is often substituted for it. The rou...
-Nasturtium Or Indian Cress (Trcpceolum Majus)
This well-known plant, although a perennial in its native home, Peru, is generally treated as an annual in cultivation. As a decorative flower-garden plant it is referred to in Vol, II, p. 73, and tha...
-Orache Or Mountain Spinach (Atriplex Hortensis)
A hardy annual, (fig. 510), native of Tar-tary, with angular furrowed stems up to 6 ft. and more in height, furnished with broad, arrow-shaped, soft, crimpy leaves. These are boiled and eaten like Spi...
-Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea)
This Indian annual (fig. 511) has juicy stems and leaves which are eaten cooked, or raw as a salad, and are sometimes pickled. Seeds may be sown in April or May, and monthly till August, in warm sunny...
-Rampion (Campanula Rapunculus)
This European biennial (fig. 512) has white spindle-shaped roots which are eaten raw or cooked. The leaves as well as the roots are sometimes used in winter salads. The Rampion prefers a light rich so...
-Rue (Ruta Graveolens)
An evergreen herbaceous undershrub, native of South Europe, known in some places as the Herb of Grace, and Countryman's Treacle. It grows 2 to 3 ft. high, and has deeply divided blue-green leaves ...
-Sage (Salvia Officinalis)
This bushy evergreen undershrub of the Labiate family is grown in some market gardens where the plants are rarely disturbed. Mitcham has always been a great Sage-growing centre, owing, no doubt, to t...
-Salsafy Or Vegetable Oyster (Tragopogon Porrifolius)
This European biennial belongs to the Dandelion and Chicory family, and is valued for its fleshy tapering tap roots (fig. 514). The leaves are long, straight, and narrow, greyish-green, with a whitish...
-Savory
There are two kinds of Savory - the Summer Savory (Satureia hortensis), an annual; and the Winter Savory (S. montana), a low-growing spreading perennial, both natives of South Europe, and belonging to...
-Scopzonera (Scorzonera Hispanica)
This is closely related to the Salsafy and belongs to the same family (Composite), but may be distinguished by the blackish skin of its tap roots, by its broader lance-shaped oblong and pointed leaves...
-Sorrel (Rumex Acetosa)
This member of the Rhubarb family is grown in small quantities by some market gardeners, more or less as a catch crop, between the rows of fruit trees and bushes. The clumps are planted 1 to 1 1/2 ft....
-Southernwood (Artemisia Abrotanum)
This is a fragrant shrubby plant with finely cut grey-green leaves and small yellowish flowers. It grows in almost any soil, damp or dry, and possesses medicinal properties resembling those of the Wor...
-Tansy (Tanacetum Vvlgare)
An aromatic European perennial, about 3 ft. high, with oval-oblong leaves deeply cut into very narrow segments, each of which is also deeply cut into still narrower portions. The flower-heads are deep...
-Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus)
This relative of the Southernwood and Wormwood is a native of Siberia. It is a perennial about 2 ft. high, with lance-shaped aromatic leaves and small whitish flowers in summer. It flourishes in any g...
-Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris)
The common Thyme is a dwarf compact shrubby plant with wiry stems and small deep-green triangular leaves, greyish beneath. There are narrow-leaved and broad-leaved forms, the latter being a taller and...
-Watercress
The cultivation of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is carried on in various parts of Herts, Bucks, Essex, Berks, Surrey, Hants, and Dorset, in areas varying from 1/2 ac. up to as much as 15 ac. in ...
-The Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetogella)
The Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetogella) belongs to a quite different family (Geraniacese) from the ordinary Sorrel, and is often called the Shamrock by the uninitiated. It grows wild in cool, shady places...
-Wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium)
A silky hardy perennial with divided leaves and arching sprays of small yellow flower-heads, having an aromatic and somewhat bitter properties. It is best grown in rather poor soil, and in warm places...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation
1. General For over three hundred years market gardeners, or maratchers, in the neighbourhood of Paris and other parts of France have practised a wonderful system of cultivation, by means of which th...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 2
II. Two Acres Of Ground Covered With Greenhouses To cover this space with modern greenhouses would take twelve houses, each 240 ft. long and 30 ft. wide, each greenhouse covering 800 sq. yd., or abou...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 3
Site And Aspect The best site for a French garden is one not too far from a supply of good stable manure; where water can be obtained in abundance either from a company on reasonable terms, or by mea...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 4
Making The Beds All plant beds in French gardens, whether under frames or cloches or in the open air, are of uniform width, namely, 4 ft. 5 in., with a pathway of 1 ft. between, making 5 ft. 5 in. a...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 5
Frames The frames used are made of rough deal boards 1 in. or more thick. The length is invariably 13 ft. The back board is 8 or 9 in. high, and the front one about 7 in., so that when covered with l...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 6
Mats These are made of rye straw, which is better because lighter and more durable, and does not hold the wet so much as wheat or oat or barley straw. The usual size of a rye-straw mat is 5 ft. long ...
-Section XXXIV. French Gardening Or Intensive Cultivation. Part 7
I. Estimated Establishment Expenses Of A Two-Acre French Garden (Capital Outlay) 300 frames and 900 lights 450 0 0 3000 cloches @ 5 per 100 ............ ...
-2. Crops Grown In French Gardens
The principal crops grown are Radishes, Lettuces (Cos and Cabbage varieties), Endive, Carrots, Cauliflowers, Turnips, Spinach, Celery, and Canteloupe Melons. These may be regarded as the standard crop...
-Carrots
Vast quantities of these are grown, the smaller - rooted varieties, like Paris Forcing (Carotte rouge a forcer), Early Forcing Horn (Carotte tres-courte a chassis, or G. grelot, C. Toupie), Scarl...
-Cauliflowers
This is a most important crop, and if the heads can be obtained early very good prices may be realized. For the first early crops such varieties as Express, Dwarf Early Erfurt (noin hatif d'Erfurt),...
-Celery
For intensive culture such kinds as Chemin or Plein blanc dove (or Golden Paris) are favoured for early crops, while for succession White Plume (Plein blanc d'Amerique) or Pink Plume (Plein blanc a co...
-Corn Salad Or Lamb's Lettuce
Many English market gardeners grow this crop, but not in the same way as their French brothers. The latter look upon it as an important adjunct to other crops, and frequently sow it broadcast on beds ...
-Cucumbers
These are often a good crop in French gardens, such varieties as Telegraph and others being easily cultivated in the frames. The seeds are sown singly in smallpots in February or March in the same way...
-Endive
A very important crop in France, and one that should receive more attention in England for salad purposes. There are two distinct kinds - the broad-leaved or Batavian Endives (known to the French as S...
-Lettuces
Both Cos and Cabbage varieties are extensively cultivated. The Cos Lettuces are known under the name of Romaine in French gardens, to distinguish them from the Cabbage varieties, which are simply call...
-Cos Lettuces (Romaines)
Among the best varieties are Dwarf Frame (Plate a cloches), Paris White (Blonde maraichere), Paris Market (Grise maraichere), and Paris Green (Verte maraichere) - the two last-named being useful for o...
-Melons
While the Carrots, Radishes, Lettuces, Cauliflowers, and Turnips in the early part of the year are relied upon to fill the coffers of the maraiclier, Melons fulfil the same function during the summer ...
-Radishes
These constitute an easily grown and lucrative crop either when grown in frames during the winter months or in the open air in spring, summer, and autumn. For early frame culture the Turnip-shaped or ...
-Spinach
This is still an important crop to the French maraicher, but is not grown so much in frames now as formerly. The seeds of a variety like Monstrous Viroflay is sown on prepared beds about August to p...
-Turnips
The variety most in favour for frame work in French gardens is the Marteau or Half-long White Forcing, but others may be grown if considered sufficiently remunerative. The seeds are sown early in ...









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