This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
The buds and leaves of horticultural crops often swarm with legions of biting and sucking insects. A mere enumeration of the different kinds of these pests would weary the reader. Some insects, like the rose chafer, work on several different kinds of plants, while many others attack only one or two kinds. In apple orchards, the opening buds are seized upon by the the hungry bud-moth and case-bearing caterpillars, by where the imago or beetle emerged.
Fig. 1316. Burrows of an apple-tree borer. The holes at a show the newly hatched canker-worms, and by tent-caterpillars, whose tents or "sign-boards" are familiar objects in many orchards. These pests continue their destructive work on the leaves. The pear slug often needs to be checked in its work of skeletonizing the leaves of the pear and cherry. The pear psylla, one of the jumping plant-lice, is a very serious menace to pear-growing in many localities; the fruit is either dwarfed or drops from badly infested trees, and sometimes so many little pumps sucking out its life finally cause the death of the tree. The little blue grapevine flea-beetle often literally nips the prospective crop of fruit in the bud, or the rose-chafer may swarm over the vines and eat the foliage or blossoms. Currant and gooseberry growers realize that eternal vigilance against the familiar green currant worms is the price of a crop of fruit. The asparagus beetles would soon appropriate every asparagus shoot that appears in many localities. It is a continual struggle against insect pests to get a paying crop of almost any vegetable. The several kinds of cabbage caterpillars would soon riddle the leaves. The hungry striped cucumber beetles can hardly wait for the melon, squash, or cucumber vines to come up.
Two sucking insects, the harlequin cabbage bug and the squash stink-bug, are equally as destructive as their biting relatives. The bud- and leaf-feeding insects are usually readily controlled by spraying some poison on their food, or by hitting them with some oil or soap spray. As the female moths of canker-worms are wingless, a wire trap or sticky bandage placed around the trunk of the tree in the late fall and early spring, to capture the moths as they crawl up the tree to lay their eggs, will greatly help to check these serious pests. The collection and burning of the conspicuous egg-rings of the tent-caterpillars at any time between August and the following April will greatly reduce the vast numbers of tents or signboards of shiftlessness in apple orchards. Hand-picking or collecting is the most successful method of controlling the rose-chafer, harlequin cabbage bug, and the squash stink-bug in many cases. Prompt action, guided by a knowledge of the insect's habits and life-history, and any intelligent use of materials and apparatus, are essential in any successful effort to control these bud- and leaf-feeding pests of the horticulturist.
Fig. 1317. A beetle borer and its work.
The larva bores in the young wood of raspberry and blackberry canes, causing the swellings seen in the picture.
Fig. 1318. Grasshopper. (Mounted)