This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek For Beautiful Flower)
Orchida-ceae. Sub-epiphytal or terrestrial hothouse orchids found in the eastern hemisphere, and sparingly in the western hemisphere.
Scapes erect, many-flowered: leaves broad, plaited: flowers white or rose-colored, rarely yellow: pseudobulbs angulate, with grayish green sheaths in the Vestitae section, but absent in the Veratrifoliae section. - Forty to 50 species in tropics of both hemispheres.
Most of the species and the numerous varieties grown are deciduous, losing the foliage about the time of flowering, and, at this season, water is given sparingly until the flowers are cut; then the bulbs are kept in a dry warm place until signs of growth in spring. All calanthes are terrestrial and should be potted each year in fibrous loam, with a small portion of old manure and sand mixed in. Use plenty of drainage as for other orchids, and about 2 inches of soil; secure the bulbs firmly by means of part of the old wiry roots; water very sparingly until active root-action takes place; but, when in full growth, weak manure-water may be given at each watering. The young foliage is very sensitive to sun, and must be shaded as soon as it develops; keep the plants near the glass and give all light possible, and the warmest treatment permitted in orchid culture. They enjoy a little heat, even in summertime, from the pipes at night. The best place to grow calanthes is a sunken, well-heated pit facing south, lowering the plant as the foliage nears the glass. Calanthe veratrifolia is an evergreen species and may be treated similarly to the Phaius. Calanthes are easily increased by separation of the bulbs at the time of repotting.
Young bulbs are often produced from the apex of old ones; old ones will start again the second year and make increase. (E. O. Orpet.)
Lindl. (C oculata, Hort.). Leaves broadly lanceolate, nearly 2 ft. long, from grayish green pseudo-bulbs: flowers nearly 3 in. across, numerous, in racemes; petals and sepals whitish, all more or less overlapping, the former oval-oblong, the latter obovate-oblong; labellum flat, large, 3-lobed, the mid-lobe cleft; a yellow or crimson blotch in front of the short column; scapes from 2-3 ft. high, hairy. Blooms in winter. Malaya. B.M. 4671. F.E. 9:325. A.F. 6:655. F.S. 8:816. - A most popular orchid. There are many forms, of which the following are the most important: variety gigantea, Hort. Larger in all parts: flowers white, with red eye. variety nivalis, Hort. Flowers pure white. variety Turneri, Hort. (C. Turneri, Reichb. f.). Flowers more numerous, labellum with a crimson blotch; blooms later in the season than the next. variety rubro-oculata, Hort. Labellum with a crimson-purple blotch. Oct. - Feb. G. 10:629. variety luteo-oculata, Hort. Yellow-blotched. variety Regnieri, Hort. (C. Regnieri, Reichb. f. C. Stevensi-dna, Regnier). Pseudobulbs more elongated, with a depression above the middle: labellum rose-colored, with a purple blotch in front of column, less deeply lobed than in the type.
A.F. 6:655. variety Regnieri Wflliamsii, Hort. (C. Williamsii, Hort.). Sepals white, sometimes shaded pink; petals white, rose-bordered; lip deep rose.
R. Br. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, about 2 ft. long, from a creeping rhizome: flowers white, in dense corymbose racemes; petals obovate-spatulate; sepals obovate-oblong; labellum 4-parted, the anterior lobes usually broader than the posterior or basal lobes. Blooms May-July. Malaya. B.M. 2615.
Veitchii, Lindl. Fig. 735. A hybrid between C. rosea and C. vestita: flowers rose-colored; labellum with white spot near the base. Winter-flowering. There is also a white variety. This hybrid was raised by Veitch, in 1856. B.M. 5375. Gng. 14:134. A.F. 25:1093. Forms of this are variety bella, Hort., with pink flowers; variety nigro-oculata gigantea, Hort., with stout stems, the flowers white with an eye of reddish crimson; variety Sandhurstiana, Hort., with crimson flowers; variety Sedenii, Hort., with deep rose flowers; variety superba, Hort., has richer color.
Masuca, Lindl. Scape 2 ft. long, with large, many-ribbed, dark leaves: flowers 1 in. across, the segments overlapping, deep violet, fading to lilac, the lip deep violet-purple. Summer and autumn. N. India. B.M. 4541. variety grandiflora, Hort., is of greater size throughout.
C. burmanica, Rolfe. Flowers mauve-purple, with yellow crest. Burma. - C. Clive, Hort. (C. Veitchii X?). - C. Cooksonii, Hort. (C. Veitchii X C. vestita luteo-oculata). Flowers pure white, except a blotch of yellow in the throat and a few lemon-yellow lines on lip. -C. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Hort. (C. vestita rubro-oculata x C. Veitchii). - C. discolor, Lindl. stems leafy: flowers with claret sepals and petals and a 3-lobed white lip flushed rose. Japan. G.C. III. 35: 389. B.R. 26:55. - C. Eyermannii, Hort. (C. vestita rubro-oculata XC. Veitchii). Racemes shorter than in C. Veitchii, with larger, more spreading white flowers with a reddish blotch at the base of the lip. G.F. 4:17. - C. gigas, Hort. (C. grandiflora XC. Regnieri). Flowers nearly 3 in. across, borne on a stem over 5 ft. tall; sepals and petals milk-white, the latter tinged rose at base and apex; lip 4 lobed, bright rose, striated with pale rose or white, a reddish crimson blotch at the base. - C. Hennisii, Loher. Similar to C. vestita. Philippines. G.C. III. 46:34, desc. - C. madagascariensis, Rolfe. Sepals and petals rosy mauve; lip dull magenta with white spot at base.
G.C. III. 28: 335, desc. - C. McWilliamsii, Hort.=(?). - C. Orpetiana, Hort. - C summitense, Hort. - C. Warpuri, Rolfe. Sepals white; petals much narrower, white; lobed lip dull purple, changing finally to orange. Madagascar. GEO.V.Nash.