This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
In the hot months of summer, a cool evening should be selected and one-quarter of an ounce of cyanide of potassium, one ounce of sulfuric acid and two ounces of water to every 1,000 cubic feet contained in the greenhouse may be used. (See Fumigation.) The house at this season of the year should be opened up in forty-five minutes after the cyanide has been dropped into the liquid. Repeat at intervals of about three weeks. In winter the quantity may be doubled to the same cubic feet of space, and the house may be kept closed until morning. When opening the ventilators after fumigating in this manner, do not breathe in the greenhouse until the air has changed, say about half an hour after, as the gas is deadly to human beings. Fumigating with tobacco will kill the green-fly, but it has no effect on the white-fly. (Geo. F. Stewart.)
Fig. 739. Calceolaria herbeohybrida.
a. Herbaceous calceolarias, some of them 'parents of the florists' varieties of this country.
b. Leaves simple.
c. Flowers essentially yellow.
One to 2 ft., the stem soft-hairy, terete: radical lvs ovate and long-petioled (the petioles winged at top), undulate and dentate, sometimes obscurely lobed, rugose and pubescent, paler beneath, often purplish toward the tip; stem - leaves shorter-petioled and becoming sessile above: flowers in a forking corymb, the slipper large, oblong or oblong-obovate, furrowed or crenate, hanging, yellow, with orange-brown dots. Chile. B.M. 3255. - From this species we appear to have derived the spots of calceolaria flowers
One to 3 ft. high, the stem 4-angled: radical leaves ovate and sometimes cordate, obtuse or nearly so, doubly crenate, rugose and hairy, whitish beneath; stem - leaves smaller and narrower, somewhat clasping, opposite: flowers small (about half as large as in C. crenatiflora), in a broad, somewhat loose corymb, the slipper somewhat short-oblong, clear yellow outside and marked with red lines inside. Chile. B.M. 2418.
Herbaceous, stemless: leaves . ovate-spatu-late, toothed at top: scapes many, few-flowered; flowers large, yellow, lower lip large and the upper one small and notched, the under side of the slipper dotted with red. Chile, Argentina. B.M. 2805. L.B.C. 15:1402. F.S.R. 2:312.
An erect, strong-growing, herbaceous, or half shrubby species: stem terete, green, stout: leaves perfoliate, on short winged petioles, ovate or elliptic, coarsely serrate, 5-9 in. long (in a vigorous plant), and a rich light green in color: stems and leaves densely hairy; infloresence paniculate, terminal, large and handsome; flowers rich golden-yellow and marked in throat with brown, and about 1 in. diam. Peru. B.M. 4525. G. 27:663. J.H. III. 50:489. J.F. 1, pl. 32. - One of the parents of several handsome hybrids.
A garden hybrid raised at Trinity College, Dublin, by Burbidge between C. Pavonii on the one side and C. deflexa (C. fuchsiaefolia) or possibly C. amplexicaulis on the other: plant erect: stems hairy, terete: leaves light green, lanceolate, 5-9 in. long, serrate, winged along the petiole: infloresence large, in terminal free-branching panicles; flowers 1 in. diam., rich golden yellow. G. 25:547. Gn. 47:306. - One of the finest of cool greenhouse kinds and valuable also as a bedding plant as it grows into a fine large specimen as much as 6 ft. high and branches freely from the base. Readily prop, by cuttings.
cc. Flowers purple.
stems erect, pubescent, 1-2 ft.: radical leaves spatulate and acutish, with a strong midrib, sparsely hairy, rugose, dentate; stem - leaves broad-cordate and clasping, less toothed: flowers in loose corymbs, small, purplish or reddish violet, the slipper somewhat furrowed. Chile. B.M. 2775. B.R. 1313. - Supposed to have entered largely into purple-flowered varieties.
stem a foot or two high, terete, branchy, woolly, with appressed hairs: leaves oblong or lingulate, narrowing into long-winged petioles, clasping, obscurely toothed, rugose, woolly on both sides: peduncles in pairs, forking: flowers small, dull purple, the slipper nearly globular and furrowed. Chile. B.M. 2874. L.B.C. 16:1557.
Often 2 ft., the stem terete, hairy, and leafy: leaves opposite, with clasping petioles, cut nearly or completely to the midrib; leaflets varying from lanceolate to broad-oval, acuminate, ciliate, dentate: flowers very small, in small hairy corymbs, pale yellow, the slipper nearly orbicular in outline. Chile, Peru, Ecuador. B.M. 2405. - This is sold by seedsmen as an annual bedding plant.
Often reaches 3 ft. or more: leaves pinnatifid or completely compound, the divisions short and nearly entire, obtuse or nearly so: flowers small, sulfur-yellow. Chile, Peru, Bolivia. B.M. 41. - The first known garden species, still sold as an annual.
Derivatives of the herbaceous calceolarias: mostly dwarf or small (2 ft. or less), in many colors, usually with well-inflated slippers.
aa. Shrubby calceolarias. b. Flowers yellow.
Two to 6 ft. high, branchy and bushy: leaves glabrous, oval-lanceolate, crisped and dentate, the short petioles winged: flowers in terminal clusters, small, yellow. Chile. L.B.C. 10:942. B.R. 744,1083. - Variable. Probably the chief source of shrubby calceolarias. variety viscosissima, Hort. (Fig. 740), is a sticky-hairy form with sessile leaves and showy flowers
Fig. 740. Calceolaria integrifolia variety viscosissima. (x 1/3) bb. Leaves compound, or essentially so.
More shrubby: leaves linear and clustered, toothed, sessile, not hairy: flowers small, yellow, in a close, terminal cluster. Chile. B.M. 2915.
A foot or two high: leaves cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, pubescent, woolly beneath and deep-rugose above, clasping: flowers small, in an upright corymb, pale yellow and spotless, the slipper hoof-shaped. Ecuador, Peru.
bb. Flowers white.
Shrubby, erect, branched, the branches opposite: leaves linear, toothed above, with fascicles of flowers in axils: flowers small, white, of 2 very unequal lips, the upper one being very small, the throat closed. Chile. B.M.4157. G.C.III.22:141. Gn. 51:60; 75, p. 6. J.H. 111.61:419. - A most beautiful species in England when planted out in a soil rich in humus, but should be shaded from hot sun. The plant dislikes pot culture. This species has recently been used by the hybridist in order to secure a race with white flowers The new hybrid C. Veitchii is likely to prove a great aquisition to gardens, and is partly derived from this species.
Here may be grouped the shrubby garden calceolarias that are derivatives of most other species. They are marked by the prevailing under-color of yellow, orange or orange-red; sometimes they are yellowish white or dull red. C. andina, Benth. (C. Herbertiana variety pallidiflora, Lindl.). Shrubby, glandular-pubescent: leaves orbicular-ovate, thick, rugose, hairy: flowers small, yellow, the slipper crenate. Chile. B.M. 7326. B.R. 1576. - C. bicolor, Ruiz & Pav. Shrubby: leaves ovate, dentate: flowers small, the slipper sulfur-yellow above and white below. Peru. B.M. 3036. L.B.C. 18:1783. - C. cana, Cav. Herbaceous, tufted, scapose, 1-1 1/2 ft.: leaves radical, oblong-lanceolate, spatulate or obovate: flowers white with small purple or rose-colored lines and blotches. Chile. B.M. 8416. - C. Clibranii. Hort.=C. profusa. F.E. 28:143. - C. deflexa, Ruiz & Pav. (C. fuchsiaefolia, Hemsl.). Shrubby: leaves lanceolate: flowers yellow, panicled, the upper lip very large. Peru. B.M. 6431. G.C. II. 15:269. Gn. 15:258. - C flexuosa, Ruiz & Pav shrubby at base: leaves large-ovate, coarsely crenate-dentate: flowers rather large, clear yellow, with very large green calices.
Peru. B.M. 5154. F.S. 22:2331. - ft Forgetii, Skan. Undershrub, 1-1 1/2 ft., slender: leaves ovate, obtuse or somewhat acute, serrate: flowers small, pale yellow with a large reddish brown blotch inside the lower lip. Peru. B.M. 8436. - ft fuchsiae folia, Hemsl.=C. deflexa. - ft Henrici, Hook. f. Shrubby, evergreen: leaves willow-like, small-toothed: flowers panicled, clear yellow, the upper lip large. Peru. B.M. 5772. - ft hyssopifolia, HBK. Shrubby: leaves crowded, small, lanceolate and toothed, or at top of stem linear and entire, margins revolute: flowers rather large, in many-flowered corymbs, pale sulfur-yellow, the slipper obovate-orbicular and crenate. Ecuador. - ft Jeffreyi, Hort., is a hybrid group between herbaceous greenhouse kinds and C. integrifolia, produced about 10 years ago in England: 2-G ft., with branching panicles bearing flowers about 1 in. across of few colors. - ft kewensis, Hort. Cross of C. Jeffreyi with herbaceous varieties: more compact and larger-flowered than C. Jeffreyi; colors of wide range: plant 1-2 1/2 ft. high and about as broad when in good bloom. G.C. III. 39:390. - ft lobata, Cav. Herbaceous: leaves triangular-ovate, palmately 5-7-lobed, dentate: flowers in terminal clusters, clear, pale yellow, and spotted on the up-curved slipper.
Peru, Bolivia. B.M. 4525, 6330. - ft mex-icana, Benth., is a small-flowered, pale yellow species hardy in England: annual: lower leaves 3-parted or -lobed, the upper ones pinnatisect. Mts., Mex., Costa Rica. - ft petiolaris, Cav. (C. floribunda, Lindl.). Herbaceous: leaves ovate, the lower ones wing-petioled, toothed, rugose: flowers yellow in loose panicles, the lips connivent. Chile. -C. pisacomensis, Meyen. Shrubby: leaves ovate-cordate, nearly or quite obtuse nearly sessile, irregularly crenate, margins reflexed: flowers large, orange varying to red, the slipper up-curved. Peru. B.M. 5677. -C. polyrrhiza, Cav. A dwarf and tufted species from Patagonia, with dark yellow purple-spotted flowers: herbaceous, cespitose: leaves crowded, lanceolate. S. Chile, Patagonia. For rockwork. - C. profusa, Hort. (C. Clibranii, Hort.). On the order of C. Burbidgei. A garden form of free-flowering habit. - C. Sinclairii, Hook. Herbaceous, half-hardy: leaves oblong-ovate, stalked, crenate-dentate, hairy: flowers small, lilac or flesh-colored, spotted within, the 2 lips nearly equal, not saccate.
New Zeal. B.M. 6597. Now referred to Jovellana (J. Sineclairii, Kranzl.)-C. tenella, Poepp. & Endl. Herbaceous, half-hardy, 6 in. high: leaves ovate or orbicular, small ( 1/3 in. long), nearly or quite sessile: flowers yellow, spotted within. Chile. B.M. 6231. - C. Veitchii, Hort. Hybrid of C. alba and a garden variety: 3-5 ft., erect and branched: flowers many, rather small, pale lemon-yellow. G.C. III. 51, Suppl. June 1. Gn. 76, p. 271. (See No. 14.)-C. violacea, Cav.(Jovellana violacea, Don). Shrubby: leavessmall, ovate-cordate, deep-toothed, stalked: flowers yellow-salmon, spotted within and without, the two lips not saccate. Chile. B.M. 4929. - ft virgata, Ruiz & Pav. Bushy, 1-1 1/2 ft.: leaves ovate, short-stalked: flowers rather small, numerous, white. Peru, Bolivia. G.C. III. 51:50.
L. H. B