(Latin, calendae or calends: throughout the months). Composite. Flower-garden plants.

Small herbs , the common cultivation species annual, others perennial, with alternate simple leaves, mostly large heads with yellow or orange rays, glabrous incurved achenes, plane naked receptacle, pappus none, and involucre broad, with scales in one or two series, their margin usually scarious. - Some 15 species from Canary Isls. to Persia.


Linn. Pot Marigold. Fig. 741. Annual: 1-2 ft. high, more or less hairy: leaves oblong and more or less clasping, entire, thickish: heads solitary, on stout stalks, large with flat spreading rays, showy, closing at night. S. Eu. B.M. 3204. V. 5:44; 16:165. - One of the most universal garden flowers, running into many vars., distinguished by size, color, and degree of doubling. The color varies from white-yellow to deep orange. This is the marygold of Shakespeare's time. The flower-heads are sometimes used in cookery, to flavor soups and stews. The calendula is of the easiest culture in any warm, loose soil. The seeds are usually sown where the plants are to stand, but they may be sown indoors or in a frame and the plants transplanted. The achenes are large and germinate quickly. The plant blooms the whole season, particularly if the flowers are picked. It is a hardy annual, and in the southern states will bloom most of the year. In the N. it blooms up to the first frosts, sometimes beyond. Sown in summer or autumn, it makes a good winter bloomer.

Florets are used in medicine as a vulnerary and anti-emetic. The flowering plant was formerly used for removing warts.

Calendula officinalis, double flowered. (x2/3)

Fig. 741. Calendula officinalis, double-flowered. (x2/3)


Vahl (C. Noeana, Boiss.). More diffuse, annual: leaves sessile, lanceolate, somewhat dentate: heads bright yellow, not doubled, very numerous, on long peduncles. W. Medit. region. - Seeds are sold by American dealers.

ft Pongei, Hort., and ft pluvialis, Linn., will be found under Dimorphotheca. l.h.b.