(Latin name of the marigold). Ranuncu-laceae. Beautiful hardy blooming marsh plants, the largest and best of which are used about water-gardens and moist parts of borders.

Succulent perennial herbs, glabrous, with a fascicle of strong, fibrous roots: leaves simple, rather rounded-cordate at base: flowers yellow, white or pink; sepals large, deciduous, petal-like; petals none; stamens numerous: carpels sessile, becoming follicles, with 2 rows of seeds. -About 10 species of temperate and frigid regions. Monogr. by G. Beck, in Kaiserlich-Konigliche Zool. Bot. Gesellschaft (Vienna, 1886), 36:347-363; E. Huth, Monogr. in Helios 9:69-74.

Calthas flourish best in wet places near running water. Though naturally bog-plants, they succeed admirably well in an ordinary border in rather rich soil. They should be introduced more liberally into the flower-garden, where they bloom very freely year after year, and usually mature a second quite abundant crop of bloom in the fall. The flowers last a long time in water, and sell readily in the cut-flower market.

The propagation is naturally accomplished by roots and by seed. The roots divide easily and several of the species send out rootstalks. The divisions may be made best in late fall or mild winter weather. If seeds are used, they must be fresh and given a moist, cool place in partial shade.

Biflora

DC. No true stem: scape slender, usually 2-flowered: leaves as in C. palustris: sepals 6-9, nearly white or sometimes bluish: follicles at maturity distinctly stalked. Spring. Calif, to Alaska.

leptos6pala, DC. Stout scape, 8-12 in.: leaves all basal or barely 1 on stem; nerves at base nearly parallel, otherwise like those of C. biflora: sepals 7-10, oblong, becoming narrower, white: flowers solitary: follicles scarcely stalked. May, June. Alaska to Wash, and Colo. Gn. 30:340.

Palustris

Linn. Marsh Marigold. stem hollow, 1-2 ft., branching, several-flowered: leaves cordate or reniform, dentate, crenate or entire: flowers bright yellow, 1-2 in. broad; sepals 5 or 6, rarely 7: follicles compressed, 1/2in. long. Apr-June. Wet ground. Carolinas to Canada and westward. Gt. 47, p. 630. Gn. 59, p. 166. - Used before flowering in the spring as "cowslip greens." variety monstrdsa-pleno, Hort. (variety flore-pleno, Hort.). An improvement on the above: flowers larger, of greater substance, and often much doubled. Very beautiful. variety Tyermanii, Hort. A dwarf form with golden flowers G.M. 52:415.

Polypetala

Hochst. Two ft. high: leaves 10-12 in. across: flowers 3 in. across. Caucasus and Asia Minor. - The plant spreads rapidly by stolons and may thus be easily propogated Gn. 69, p. 269.

C. elata, Duthie. Flowers smaller than in C. palustris, golden yellow with orange-colored filaments and black anthers. Himalaya. Gn. W. 21:666, desc. K. C. Davis.