This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(from the Greek goddess, whose name signifies concealment; referring to its rarity and beauty). Orchidalceae. One of the rarest and most prized native orchids.
A delicate bog-plant, 3-4 in. high, with a small bulb, 1 roundish or ovate striated If., and 1 pink flower with a spotted sac. For culture, see Calopogon; but more difficult to grow than that plant. A monotypic genus.
Oakes. Fig. 754. leaf an inch wide and long: scape 3-4 in. high, with about 3 sheaths; sepals and petals similar, ascending, lanceolate, acuminate, pink; lip larger than the rest of the flower, with brown spots in lines and purple and yellow markings, woolly-hairy within; column petal-like, ovate, bearing the lid-like anther just below the apex. Maine to Minn, and N.; also Eu. Abundant in parts of Ore. and Wash. B.M. 2763. G.C.II. 16:656.
Fig. 754. Calypso borealis.
These are deciduous shrubs of aromatic fragrance, with opposite rather large leaves usually rough above and brown or brownish usually fragrant flowers, terminal on leafy branchlets followed by a large capsulelike dry fruit. Except C. occidentalis, the species are hardy or nearly hardy North. They grow in almost any well-drained and somewhat rich soil, and succeed as well in shady as in sunny positions. Propagated by seeds sown in spring; also increased by layers put down in summer, and by suckers or division of older plants.
Fig. 752. Calycanthus floridus.
a. Leaves densely pubescent beneath.
Linn. Fig. 752. Three to 6 ft.: leaves oval or broad-ovate, acuminate, dark green above, pale or grayish green beneath, 1 1/2-3 in. long: flowers dark reddish brown, fragrant, about 2 in. broad. Va. to Fla. B.M. 503. Gn. 21, p. 184; 33, p. 392. - This species is much cultivated for its very fragrant flowers and is the hardiest of all. variety ovatus, Lav. (C. ovatus, Ait.). Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, rounded or subcordate at the base. L.I. 24.
aa. Leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so: flowers slightly or not fragrant.
Walt. (C. ferax, Michx. C. laevigatus, Willd. C. nana, Loisel.). Three to 6 ft.: leaves usually elliptic or oblong, acute or acuminate, green beneath, 2-5 1/2 in. long: flowers reddish brown, 1 1/2 in. broad; anthers oblong: fruit ovoid, contracted at the mouth as in the preceding species. Alleghanies; from Ga. to N. C. and Ala. B.R. 6:481. - Roots, leaves and bark used for their antiperiodic properties. fruit said to be poisonous to sheep. variety glaucus, Schneid. (C. glaucus, Willd.). Fig. 753. Leaves usually ovate or oblong-ovate, acuminate, glaucous beneath: flowers paler. B.R. 5:404. variety oblongifplius, Nutt., with oblong-lanceolate leaves glaucous beneath.
Fig. 753. Calycanthus tertilis variety glaucus. (X 1/3)
Hook. & Arn. (C. macrophyllus, Hort.). To 12 ft.: leaves usually rounded at the base, ovate or oblong-ovate, green beneath and sometimes slightly pubescent, 4-6 in. long: flowers light brown, 3 in. broad; anthers linear: fruit campanulate, not contracted at the mouth. Calif. B.M. 4808. F.S. 11:1113. R.H. 1854: 341. Gn. 33, p. 392.,
C. Mohrii, Small. Shrub, 2-6 ft.: leaves ovate to oblong-ovate at the base, rounded to subcordate or broadly cuneate, densely pubescent beneath, 2-7 in. long: flowers purple, fragrant, more than 2 in. across. Tenn, and Ala. Little-known species, very similar to C. floridus variety ovatus, but the fruit campanulate and not contracted at the mouth. It has proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum. - C, praecox, Linn.=Meratia praecox. Alfred Rehder.