This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
A. Calyx with an appendage at the base of each sinus.
b. Caps. 5-celled and stigmas 5 (variable in No. 3). c. Style excessively long, the stigma an inch or more long. 2. macrostyla, Boiss. & Heldr. Annual, 1-2 ft., branched from the base, hispid with rigid spreading scattered bristles: branches stout: leaves scattered, small for the size of the plant, sessile, bristly on both surfaces; lower ones ovate-oblong, acute; upper ovate-lanceolate, recurved, cordate, eared at the base: calyx-tube hidden by the bladdery appendages, small, broader than long; flowers solitary; on stout peduncles, 2-2 1/2 in. broad; corolla very broad and open, pale purple without, dull purple within, marked with violet, and hairy toward the bottom; lobes very broad, short and acute. Mt. Taurus in Anatolia. Gn. 15: 356 and 12, p. 209. B.M.6394. -The very long exserted style is brown and spindle - shaped be-f o r e spreading open. Self-sown seeds sometimes remain a year before sprouting.
cc. Style not excessively long. 3. longestyla, Fomine. Perennial, 1½-2½ ft., more or less hairy: basal leaves lance-oval, lobed, the stem - leaves oblong and sessile: flowers blue-purple, drooping; calyx-lobes lanceolate-pointed, the appendages reflexed on the peduncle;corolla almost urn-shaped, dilated below the middle; style exserted with 3, 4 or 5 stigmas: caps. 3-5-celled. Caucasus. Gn. W. 23:671. variety parviflora, Bois. Flowers smaller. R.H. 1911:548; p. 549.
Canterbury Bells. Fig. 764. Biennial, 1-4 ft.; plant pilose: stem erect: leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, crenate-dentate: raceme lax, many-flowered; flowers violet-blue, varying to several shades and to white, 2 in. long; calyx-lobes ovate-acuminate, the appendages half as long as the ample ovate obtuse lobes; corolla bell-shaped, inflated. S. Eu. Gn. M. 14:9. Two forms (aside from the single-flowered) occur: the double, Fig. 764a, with 1-3 extra corollas, and the variety calycanthema, Hort., Fig. 7646, with an enlarged spreading and petal-like outer part sometimes deeply divided and sometimes little lobed or nearly entire (varying on the same plant). The variety calycanthema is the Cup-and-Saucer form (the name hose-in-hose, sometimes applied in Campanula, would better be retained for Primula elatior); a fair percentage come true from seed; usually a stronger plant than the common C. Medium. G.C. III. 24:65. R.H. 1896, p. 301; 1897, p. 238. Gng. 5:88. Gn. 48, p. 295. F.S. 19, p. 152. G.W. 3, p. 291. G.Z. 17: 113. variety Wiegandii, Hort. Leaves golden yellow: flowers blue. variety imperialis, Hort., is a very floriferous form or possibly a hybrid. - Canterbury bells are most commonly treated as hardy biennials, the seed being sown in the open border, but they do not flower the first year.
They can also be treated as tender annuals, the seed being sown indoors in early spring and the plants set out May 1-15. They will then flower well the first season, but always better the second year. Sowings may also be made in April, May or later, in pots, boxes or beds, and plants then be transferred into some sheltered place where they can be slightly protected during the winter, and then transplanted in spring to their permanent places into good rich soil, where they will make a great show if they have had the right treatment. Let them stand 18-24 in. apart. Seedlings potted up in autumn may be brought into bloom readily indoors in spring; and even blooming plants, if not spent, may be potted direct from the garden and used in the house in autumn.
Fig. 764. Campanula Medium, the Canterbury Bell. Modified forms are shown.
bb. Caps. 3-celled: stigmas 3.
Perennial, 1 1/2-2 ft.: stem erect, striate, woolly, branched only at the top: root-leaves large, heart-shaped, crenate, tomentose; stem - leaves on petioles which gradually shorten upward, the highest being sessile: flowers white, nodding, on short stalks, borne singly in the axils of the floral leaves as in C. sarmatica, but the floral leaves larger and broader; calyx a third or a fourth shorter than the corolla, with margins rolled back, and appendages less minute than in C. sarmatica; corolla always white, 2 in. long, ciliated at the margin, and with characteristic tooth-like processes at the base of each sinus. Caucasus, Asia Minor. B.M. 912. Gn. M. 14:9.
Perennial, 1-2 ft.: stem simple, striate, pubescent: leaves remarkable for their gray color, harsh, leathery, wrinkled, tomentose, oblong-cordate, crenate, the lower long-petioled, the upper sessile: calyx with minute reflexed appendages, and a short, densely hairy tuft: flowers about 6 on a stem, nodding; corolla about 1 in. long, and 1 1/2 in. across, pale blue, marked with 5 hairy lines. Caucasus, in subalpine places. B.M. 2019. L.B.C. 6:581.
Has the habit and infloresence of C. Trachelium, but the calyx is appendaged; perennial, 2 1/2 ft., branching from the base, angled, pilose: leaves hispid, the lower cordate, unequally petioled, doubly crenate-serrate, the uppermost ovate-acute, narrowed into a petiole: calyx setose-ciliate, lobes spreading, reflexed at the apex, appendages lanceolate, a third shorter than the lobes; corolla hispid, 2 or 3 times longer than the calyx-lobes: flowers large, bell-shaped, violet, in a long raceme. Hungary. Gt. 35, p. 477. G. 27:459.
Biennial or short-lived perennial, 1 ft. or more; whole plant forms a broad dense cone with such a profusion of bloom as almost to hide the foliage: lower leaves 4-6 in. long, obovate or spatu-late, obtuse, coarsely toothed, petiole winged: flowers pale lilac, erect, broadly campanulate, 2 in. across, the corolla hairy on margins and back. Caucasus. B.M. 7714. G.C. III. 24:33; 42:144-5. Gt. 47, p. 192. Gn. 54, p. 454; 60, p. 58. G.W. 12, p. 445. - A very beautiful and remarkable plant.
aa. Calyx without an appendage at the base of each sinus. b. Flowers rotate or wheel-shaped.