15. Vidalii, H. C. Wats

Perennial, 1-2 ft.: stem branching from the base: some branches short, sterile, others tall, floriferous, all grooved, clammy, glossy: leaves 3-4 in. long, oblong-spatulate, coarsely serrate, thick, fleshy, firm, viscid, the upper ones gradually becoming bracts: flowers 2 in. long, nodding, about 9 in a loose terminal raceme; calyx-lobes triangular, thick, one-fourth shorter than the corolla; corolla tubular, swelled below, constricted above, white with a yellow base. Azores. B.M. 4748. F.S. 7:729. A.F. 3:116. G.C. III. 18:95; 34:330-1. Gn. 54, p. 299; 63, p. 297; 74, p. 402; 75, p. 410. J.F. 3, pl. 274. - Very distinct.

dd. Color of flowers normally blue or purple (with white varieties).

E. Size of flowers large.

F. Raceme pyramidal or long-conical, usually dense.

16. Pyramidalis, Linn

Chimney Campanula. Fig. 766. Glabrous perennial, 4-5 ft.: leaves glandular-dentate, lower petiolate, ovate-oblong, subcordate; stem - leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate: calyx-lobes acuminate, spreading, half as long as the broadly bell-shaped corolla: flowers numerous, in pyramidal racemes, pale blue varying to white and darker at the base. G.C. III.

Campanula pyramidalis.

Fig. 766. Campanula pyramidalis.

32:388. Gn. 45, p. 67; 48, p. 306; 51, p. 221 (a staked pot plant); 47, p. 86 (with extensive cultural notes); 53, p. 535; 62, p. 254; 64, p. 96; 68, p. 137; 69, p. 4; 74, p. 548. R.H. 1897, p. 238. G.M. 46:612; 53: 811. G.W. 1, p. 39; 7, p. 7; 11, p. 137; 13, p. 571. variety alba, Hort., has white flowers Gn. 74, p. 645. J.H. III. 51:257. Var compacta, Hort. Dwarfer: flowers larger and of better substance. The compact variety is very floriferous and convenient for conservatory, but lacks the characteristic erect, pyramidal habit. Gn. 73, p. 54. G. 18:64. S.H. 2:97. C. Fer-gusonii, Hort., is a hybrid of C. pyramidalis and C. carpatica, resembling a dwarf form of the former in growth, 18 in.: petals more pointed than those of the latter: flowers bright lilac. Gn. 66, p. 276. Hybrids between C. pyramidalis and C. versicolor are reported.

ff. Raceme not pyramidal, usually looser.

17. Latifolia, Linn

Perennial, 3-4 ft.: leaves large, doubly serrate; root-leaves sometimes 6 in. long, petiolate, cordate, covered with soft hairs; stem - leaves sessile, more acuminate: peduncle 1-flowered; calyx-lobes long-acuminate, one-third shorter than the corolla; flowers 6-15 in a loose spike or raceme about 8 in. long, erect, very large, 2 1/2 in. long, purple or dark blue, hairy. Eu., Persia. G.W. 8, p. 445. variety macrantha, Sims (C. macrantha, Fisch.) is commoner in cult, than the type, a little hairier, with a glabrous calyx and very large flowers B.M. 2553, 3347. R.H. 1897, p. 239. J.H. III. 60:263. variety eriocarpa, DC., has the stem and leaves pilose and more pallid, and a hispid calyx-tube. There is a white-flowered form. It is native to England, and is easily naturalized there in wild gardens. The stem - leaves are probably the largest of any of the garden kinds, often 3 1/2 in. long and 2 in. wide.

ee. Size of flowers small, less than 1 in. long.

18. Bononiensis, Linn

Perennial, 2-2 1/2 ft.; scabrous: stem simple: leaves serrulate, ovate-acuminate, pallid beneath; root-leaves cordate-petiolate; upper leaves clasping: calyx-lobes acuminate, one-fourth shorter than the funnel-shaped corolla: flowers normally purplish, in a long, loose, pyramidal spike, which may be 2 ft. long, with 60-100 small flowers; corolla 3/4in. long and broad. E. Eu., W. Siberia, and Caucasus. variety ruthenica (C. ruthen-ica, Bieb.), has leaves wider and tomentose beneath. Caucasus and Tauria. B.M. 2653. There is a white-flowered form. The flowers are much smaller than in C. latifolia, and the raceme is much larger.

19. Rhomboidalis, Linn

Perennial, 1 ft., sometimes 2 ft.: stem simple, erect: leaves sessile, ovate-acute, serrate: calyx-lobes awl-shaped, one-half shorter than the bell-shaped corolla; flowers 8-10 in an almost corymbose raceme, the lower pedicels of which may be 3 in. long, the uppermost 1 in. or less; corolla purplish blue, 1 in. long, and a little wider. Mts. of Eu. B.M. 551 (as C. azurea). J.H. III. 50:541. variety alba, Hort., has white flowers G.W. 3, p. 14. - It flowers in July and August, after which the stems and leaves die down quickly.

20. Trachelium, Linn. Throatwort

Fig. 767. Perennial, 2-3 ft.: stem angular, somewhat bristly (as also the flowers): leaves rough, acuminate, coarsely crenate-dentate; root-leaves cordate, ovate, short-stalked: calyx-lobes erect, triangular-acuminate, one-third shorter than the bell-shaped blue or white corolla: peduncle 1-3-flowered; flowers erect at first, at length tending to droop in a loose raceme, which may be 12-18 in. long: caps, nodding. Eu., Caucasus, Siberia, Japan, and run wild in parts of N. Amer. R.H. 1897, p. 239. There is a double-flowered form and variations in color. - One of the commonest and hardiest of the border plants, often running out the other campanulas, and passing under many names, especially as C. urticifolia.

Campanula Trachelium. (X 1/2)

Fig. 767. Campanula Trachelium. (X 1/2) bb. Throat of corolla not spotted. c. Sis. commonly 1-flowered