39. Carpatica, Jacq

Fig. 769. Perennial, 9-18 in., glabrous: stem branching: lower leaves thin, long-petioled, ovate-rotund, cordate, coarsely dentate, undulate; upper ones shorter petioled, ovate-acuminate: peduncles long, terminal and axillary, 1-flowered; flowers large, often 1 1/2 in. wide, bright deep blue; calyx-tube obconical, the lobes acute, wide at the base, subdentate-erect, a third or half as long as the broadly bell-shaped corolla; style not exserted: caps, ovoid-cylindrical. Carpathian Mts. of Austria. B.M. 117. G.C. III. 46:412. G.W. 12, p. 436. Gn. 48, p. 297; 62, p. 326. variety coelestina, Hort. Flowers sky-blue. variety alba, Hort. Flowers white. G.M. 55:615. variety turbinata, Hort. (C. turbinata, Schott), is dwarfer, more compact, with flowers more bell- or top-shaped, and often 2 in. across, purplish blue. It also has larger leaves and more decumbent habit. Gn. 45, p. 171; 68, p. 179; 75, p. 201. G.W. 12, p. 446. F.E.17:15. A form with pallid flowers is rarer. variety Wilsonii, Hort. (C. Wil-sonii, Hort.), is a hybrid of variety turbinata and C. pulla, with the large flowers of the former and the handsome dark foliage of the latter: it is compact, dwarf, and small, ovate, very hairy leaves, with crenate-serrate margin.

Gn. 60, p. 219. variety haylodgensis, Hort. (C. hay-lodgensis, Hort.), is a garden hybrid, probably between C. carpatica and C. caespitosa. Raised by Anderson Henry, Hay Lodge, Edinburgh. Height 6-9 in.: root-leaves tufted, roundish cordate, slightly dentate; stem - leaves light green, ovate-cordate, conspicuously toothed: flowers light blue, bell-shaped, few, at the ends of stems variety pelviformis, Hort., from Crete, has very large, pale lilac, almost saucer-shaped flowers R.H. 1882, p. 509. G.C. III. 44:64. variety Hendersonii, Hort., is often referred to variety turbinata, but is more robust; there is doubt as to its origin, C. pyramidalis or C. alliariaefolia possibly having played some part in it: leaves ovate and ovate-cordate, 1 1/2 in. long, 3/4in. broad, slightly hairy on both sides, folded upwards, serrate; petioles 1- 1 1/2 in-long: flowers dark blue, 1 1/2 -2 in. wide, in short, 6-9-flowered racemes. G.W. 8, p. 65; 14, p. 581. variety riverslea, Hort. Flowers dark blue, 2-3 in. across: stems 12-15 in. long but spreading; parts of corolla often 6 or 7. G.M. 43:627. variety compacta, Hort., is a condensed dwarf form.

C. Stansfieldii, Hort., is supposed to be a hybrid between C. carpatica and C. Waldsteiniana (No. 31). - This species is very variable in height and in shape of flowers

Campanula carpatica. (X 3/8)

Fig. 769. Campanula carpatica. (X 3/8) bb. Flowers broadly bell-shaped, less widely spreading than in B, wider than in bbb (except perhaps in No. 40).

c. Height 2-3 in.

40. Isophylla, Moretti (C. Floribunda, VIV.)

Perennial: stem suberect: leaves all of same form, petiolate, roundish cordate, crenate-dentate: calyx-lobes acuminate, half shorter than the broadly bell-shaped or saucer-shaped corolla; flowers pale blue, 1 in. or more wide, corymbose; style exserted: caps.ovoid. Italy. B.M.5745. Gn. 49, p.

483; 48, p. 297. -A desirable basket or rock plant in sun or half shade. The white form, variety alba, is most excellent: free-flowering. C. Mayii, Hort., is supposed to be a derivative of this species: leaves soft and woolly. Choice.

bbb. Flowers bell-shaped.

c. Style exserted.

41. Scouleri, Hook

Perennial, 3-12 in.: stem simple or branched: leaves acutely serrate, somewhat hirsute; lower ones ovate-acute, petioled; middle ones ovate - lanceolate; upper linear - lanceolate, sessile; calyx-lobes awl-shaped, erect, one-third shorter than the corolla: flowers pale blue, racemose, or more or less panicled; style exserted: caps, ovoid. N. Calif, to Puget Sound. - The capsular valves are a little above the middle, while in C. carpatica and C. persicifolia they are near the apex.

cc. Style not exserted. d. Color dark purple. 42. pulla, Linn. Fig. 770. Perennial, 3-8 in., tufted or in clumps, showy: stem normally 1-flowered: leaves glabrous, crenulate-dentate; lower ones short-petioled, ovate-rotund; upper sessile, ovate-acute: calyx-lobes long-acuminate, erect, a half shorter than the bell-shaped, nodding corolla. Mts. of Austria, 4,000-6,000 ft. In B.M. 2492 the calyx-lobes are short-acuminate, a sixth as long as the corolla. L. B.C. 6:554. Gn. 63, p. 440. C. pulloides, Hort., is a supposed hybrid between C. pulla and C. turbinata, with habit of former: 5 in.: flowers glistening purple-blue. Gn. 66, p. 203.

Campanula pulla. (Detail X 2/5)

Fig. 770. Campanula pulla. (Detail X 2/5) dd. Style exserted.

43. Drabifolia, Sibth. & Smith (C Attica, Boiss.)

Annual, hispid, 3-4 in.: lower leaves oblong or elliptic, dentate, tapering into a petiole: flowers large, blue and lighter on the tube, bell-shaped, on forking stems Greece.

44. Rotundifolia, Linn. Harebell

Hairbell. Blue Bells of Scotland. Fig. 771. Perennial, 6-12 in.: root-leaves petiolate, orbicular or cordate, crenate-dentate: stem - leaves linear or lanceolate, usually entire: calyx-lobes awl-shaped, erect, a third shorter than the bell-shaped bright blue corolla; flower-buds erect. Eu., Siberia, N. Amer. Gn. 53:42; 62, p. 59. Gn. M. 14:10. - This is one of the most cosmopolitan of all campanulas, and the true harebell or bluebell of literature. In the wild it is usually slenderer and taller than in the garden. In shady woods it often grows 2 ft. high. The type has a white-flowered variety which is much less popular, but G.C. 1861:698 shows an excellent pot-plant of it. variety alaskana, Gray. Dwarfer, leafy to the top: radical leaves cordate, lowest stem - leaves ovate and the upper ones becoming lanceolate: calyx-lobes attenuate, becoming deflexed; corolla 1/2-1 1/2 in. long. Alaska. variety arctica, Lange. Rigid, 1- to few-fid.: corolla 1 in. long, the calyx-lobes very slender and soon spreading ordeflexing.

Canada north. variety velutina, DC. Herbage whitish pubescent. variety H6stii, Hort. (C Hostii, Baumg.), has larger flowers than the type and stouter stems The lower stem - leaves are lanceolate, remotely dentate, the upper linear entire: calyx-lobes longer than in the type, a half shorter than the corolla. The white-fid. form is not so vigorous. [G. 5:207. The most pronounced variant is variety soldanellaeflora, Hort. (C. soldanella, Hort.). Fig. 772. With semi-double blue flowers split to the base into about 25 divisions. F.S. 18:1880. Gn. 60, p. 162. This curious variation is unique in the genus. The alpine soldanellas are famous among travelers for melting their way through the ice. They have fringed blue flowers - The name C. rotundifolia seems singularly inappropriate until one finds the root-leaves in early spring. C. stenocodon, Boiss. & Reut., by some referred to C. rotundifolia, is more slender and with narrower stem - leaves: flowers long and narrow, tubular, rich lilac-purple. Alps.

Campanula rotundifolia. (X 1)

Fig. 771. Campanula rotundifolia. (X 1) dd. Color not dark purple, but violet or blue (varying to white.)