This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek kampsis, curve, referring to the curved stamens). Bignoniaceae. Trumpet-Creeper. Ornamental vines cultivated for their striking scarlet or orange flowers.
Deciduous woody plants,climb-ing by aerial rootlets, with opposite, odd-pinnate leaves, large orange or scarlet flowers in terminal clusters or panicles, followed by large elongated caps.: calyx tubular - campanulate, leathery, unequally 5-toothed; corolla f unnelform-campanulate, enlarged above the calyx, 5-lobed, with spreading lobes, slightly 2-lipped; stamens 4, 2 longer and 2 shorter with diverging anthers; ovary 2-loculed, surrounded at the base by a large disk: fruit an elongated caps., loculicidally dehiscent, with the 2 valves separating from the sep-^^-^l-,,^-- turn to which the seeds are attached; seeds numerous, compressed, with 2 large translucent wings. - One species in N. Amer. and one in China and Japan. By some botanists, Bignonia is considered the correct name for this genus, because the original description was chiefly based on C. radicans, while Tecoma is the proper name for the genus known as Stenolobium.
The hardiest species is C. radicans, which may be grown as far north as Massachusetts, at least in sheltered positions, while C. chinensis is more tender; the hybrid is intermediate between the two in hardiness. C. chinensis and C. hybrida, as well as C. radicans variety speciosa, can be grown as bushy specimens and will bloom freely on the young shoots, even if cut back almost to the ground by frost. Such plants can be easily protected during the winter by laying them down and covering them with earth. C. radicans is particularly adapted for covering walls and rocks, as it climbs with aerial rootlets and clings firmly to its support. The species of campsis prefer rich rather moist soil and sunny positions. Propagated by seeds, by greenwood cuttings under glass, or by hardwood and also by root-cuttings and layers.
The trumpet-vines are very successfully cultivated in Florida, being well adapted to the soil and climate, but to do their best need to be planted from the start in rich soil; and in addition they should be well fertilized at least once a year. They prefer a fertilizer rich in nitrogen; and a heavy mulch will also prove very beneficial. They should be grown on posts and tall stumps, or they may be trained over small oaks, persimmon trees or catalpas. Other bignoniads of similar culture are Tecomaria capensis, a half-climbing species with scarlet flowers effectively used for decoration of the veranda, and Tecoma stans. That and Campsis chinensis are the two showiest bignoniads cultivated in Florida, the latter being a climber, flowering abundantly in May and June, while the first one is a large-growing bushy species opening its immense corymbs of vivid yellow flowers the latter part of November and early in December. The Chinese trumpet creeper, C. chinensis, is the most floriferous and gorgeous. In the writer's garden a large pine stump, about 16 feet high, in May and June is completely covered with masses of brilliant fiery orange-scarlet flowers which can be seen at a distance of half a mile.
The flowers are much larger, more brilliant and much more abundantly produced than those of the native C. radicans. It is sometimes infested by a voracious caterpillar, which devours the leaves greedily. The lubber grasshoppers also attack the lower foliage. C. chinensis grows well in the poor sandy soil, perfecting luxuriant shoots 25 to 30 feet long in one season if well fertilized. The native trumpet creeper, C. radicans, is very common in the southern woodlands and fields. There is a great variety in the brilliancy of the blossoms. This is an excellent plant for covering the bare trunks of palmettos. (H. Nehrling.) radicans. Seem. (Tecoma radicans, Juss. Bignonia radicans, Linn.). Trumpet-Creeper. Trumpet-Vine.
Figs. 773, 774. High-climbing shrub, clinging with rootlets: leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets 9-11, oval to ovate-oblong, acuminate, serrate, dark green above, pale and pubescent beneath, at least along the midrib, l 1/2-2 1/2 in. long: flowers in terminal racemes; corolla tubular-funnelform, about 3 in. long, with 5 spreading lobes, usually orange with scarlet limb, tube almost thrice as long as the short-toothed calyx: fruit cylindric-oblong, keeled along the sutures, stalked and with a beak at the apex, 3-5 in. long. July-Sept. Pa. and 111. to Fla. and Texas. B.M. 485. Gn. 22, p. 339. F. 1873, p. 220. A. F. 12:34. Mn. 2:9. variety atropurpurea, Voss (variety grandiflora atropur-purea, Hort.). With large, deep scarlet flowers variety spe-ciosa, Voss. Scarcely climbing, usually forming a bush with long and slender branches: leaflets small, oval, abruptly narrowed into a slender point often 3/4in. long: flowers orange-red, with rather straight tube; limb about 1 1/4 in. across. variety praecox, Schneid. Large scarlet flowers in June. variety aurea, Hort. Flowers yellow.
Fig. 773. Trumpet-vine-Campsis radicans. (X 1/5)
Fig. 774. The Trumpet-creeper climbs by means of aerial roots. - Campsis radicans.
Voss (Tecoma grandiflora, Delaun. T. chinensis, C. Koch. Bignonia chinensis, Lam. C.adrepens, Lour.). Chinese Trumpet-Creeper. Fig. 775 (adapted from Gardening). Climbing shrub, with few or no aerial rootlets: leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets usually 7-9, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate, glabrous beneath, 1 1/2-2 1/2 in. long: flowers in terminal racemes; corolla funnelform-campanulate, shorter and broader than that of the preceding species, scarlet, about 2 in. across; calyx 5-lobed to the middle, about as long as the tube of the corolla: fruit obtuse at the apex. Aug., Sept. China, Japan. B.M. 1398; 3011. F.S. 11:1124-5. Gn. 27, p. 94; 33, p. 348; 47, p. 373. G.F. 3:393. F.R. 2:27. Gng. 4:195. - Less high-growing and sometimes shrubby; blooms when quite small and can be grown as a pot-plant, also suited for forcing. variety Thunbergii, Voss (Tecoma Thunbergii, Sieb.). Flowers bright scarlet, with very short tube and reflexed lobes. Often a variety of C. radicans is cultivated under the name C. Thunbergii. variety Princei, Voss (Tecoma grandifiora variety Princei, Dipp.), probably belongs to the following hybrid.
Fig. 775. Campsis chinensis on a clothes-post.
Schneid. (Tecoma hybrida, Jouin. T. intermedia, Schelle. T. radicans grandifiora atropur-purea, Hort. T. Princei grandifiora, Hort. T. chinensis aurantiaca, Hort.). Hybrid between the two preceding species: somewhat climbing, often forming a bush with straggling branches: leaflets 7-11, ovate to elliptic-ovate, usually pubescent along the veins beneath: flowers in terminal loose panicles; calyx divided for about one-third into ovate long-acuminate lobes much shorter than the corolla-tube; corolla funnelform-campanulate with orange-yellow tube and scarlet limb, about 2 in. across and 3 in. long. July-Sept. Garden origin. S.T.S. 1:47. M.D.G. 1904:123. - The flowers are almost as large and showy as those of C. chinensis and the plant is hardier.