This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
To kill eggs spray with miscible oil, one gallon in fifteen gallons of water, making the application as late as possible before the buds open. If the eggs have been neglected, recourse must be had to arsenate of lead, six pounds in one hundred gallons water. Apply before the blossoms open.
A white maggot that tunnels apples through and through, causing decay and falling of the fruit. The parent flies appear the latter part of June and early July and insert the eggs under the skin of the fruit. Hibernation takes place in small puparia just below the surface of the soil. Sweet and subacid varieties are most susceptible, but others are sometimes attacked.
Clean cultivation. Spray when flies appear with arsenate of lead, four pounds in one hundred gallons of water. The addition of two or three gallons of molasses is supposed to render the poison more attractive to the flies.
This highly destructive European insect was introduced near Boston a number of years ago, and is now rapidly spreading over New England. The snow-white moths, with a large tuft of brown hairs at the tip of the abdomen, appear in July and deposit eggs on the leaves in elongate masses covered with brown hairs from the body of the female. The caterpillars become only partly grown the first season, and hibernate in conspicuous nests, 3 or 4 inches long, at the tips of the branches. The black-bodied caterpillars, clothed with rather long, brownish, stinging hairs, complete their growth the next spring, feeding ravenously on the tender foliage and causing great damage in orchards, parks, and forests.
Cut out and burn all winter nests before the buds start. In the spring, spray with arsenate of lead, as recommended for the gipsy-moth. Prevent the ascent of caterpillars from other trees by banding the trunks with tanglefoot. Keep the bands fresh by combing the surface every few days.
The small brown caterpillars with black heads burrow into the buds, feeding on the opening leaves and flowers and web them together.
Spray with arsenate of lead, four pounds in one hundred gallons of water, just as the blossoms show pink, and again as the last of the petals are falling.
Wingless female moths usually emerge from the ground in late autumn, crawl up the trees and deposit their eggs on the smaller branches. The eggs hatch in April or May and the blackish yellow-striped, looping caterpillars defoliate the trees.
Band tree trunks in the fall with tanglefoot or cotton batting to prevent ascent of moths. The young canker-worms may be killed by spraying with arsenate of lead, six pounds to one hundred gallons of water.
Habits similar to the fall canker-worm, but the moths emerge in March and April Caterpillars are distinguished by having only two pairs of prolegs.