This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Circular gray scales with the exuviae, at one side of the center.
Same as for San Jose Scale. See Apple. Pear. Apple Tree-Borer; Bud-Moth; Codltn-Moth;
A minute mosquito-like fly; lays eggs in flower-buds when they begin to show white. These hatch into minute grubs which distort and discolor the fruit. New York and eastward. Prefers the Lawrence. Introduced in 1877 from France.
Destroy the infested pears. Cultivate and plow in late summer and fall to destroy the pupae then in the ground.
A minute mite which causes black blisters to appear upon the leaves. The mites collect under the bud-scales in winter.
Lime-sulfur or miscible oil as a dormant spray.
These minute, yellowish, flat-bodied, sucking insects are often found working in the axils of the leaves and fruit early in the season. They develop into minute, cicada-like Jumping-lice. The young psyllas secrete a large quantity of honey-dew, in which a peculiar black fungus grows, giving the bark a characteristic sooty appearance. There may be four broods annually, and the trees are often seriously injured.
Catalogue of Insects, continued.
Clean culture; remove rough bark from trunks and larger branches to discourage adults from hibernating; spray with "Black Leaf 40" tobacco extract, one pint in one hundred gallons of water, adding four pounds soap, on warm days in November or April to kill hibernating adults. Spray with lime-sulfur, winter strength, when the blossom clusters appear, to destroy eggs.
Spray with "Black Leaf 40" tobacco extract just as the last of the petals are falling to kill young. Repeat if necessary.
Minute insects one-twentieth inch in length, dark brown when adult, white with red eyes when young, that attack the opening buds and young fruits in early spring. They suck the sap from the tender growth, and the females lay eggs in the fruit-stems, causing a loss of the crop. The nymphs hibernate in the ground a few inches from the surface. A serious pest in California and recently introduced into New York.
Thorough cultivation during October, November, and December (in California). Make two applications of "Black Leaf" tobacco extract, one gallon in sixty gallons of 2 per cent distillate oil emulsion, the first just as the fruit-buds begin to open, the second just after the petals fall. In the East it may be controlled by timely applications of tobacco extract and whale-oil soap.
Brownish or black beetle, one-tenth inch long, boring in twigs, producing effect much like pear blight, and hence often known as "pear-blight beetle." It escapes from a minute perforation at base of bud; probably two broods.