Treatment

Same as for fall canker-worm except the bands should be applied in early spring.

Case-Bearers

The pistol-case-bearer (Coleophora malivorella) and the cigar-case-bearer (C. fletcherella). - The small caterpillars live in pistol or cigar-shaped cases, about 1/4 inch long, that they carry around with them. They appear in spring on the opening buds at the same time as the bud-moth, and may be controlled by the same means.

Codlin-Moth (Carpocapsa Pomonella)

This is the pinkish caterpillar which causes a large proportion of wormy apples. The eggs are laid by a small moth on the leaves and the skin of the fruit. Most of the caterpillars enter the apple at the blossom end. When the petals fall, the calyx is open, and this is the time to spray. The calyx soon closes, and keeps the poison inside ready for the young caterpillars' first meal. After the calyx has closed, it is too late to spray effectively. The caterpillars become full-grown in July and August, leave the fruit, crawl down on the trunk, and there most of them spin cocoons under the loose bark. In most parts of the country there are two broods annually.

Catalogue of Insects, continued.

Treatment

As the last of the petals are falling, spray with four pounds arsenate of lead in one hundred gallons of water, using a stiff spray to force it into the blossom end of the apple. Repeat the application three weeks later.

Fall Web-Worm (Hyphantria Cunea)

Hairy larva, about an inch long, varying from gray to pale yellow or bluish black, feeding upon the leaves of many trees, in tents or webs.

Treatment

Destroy by burning the webs, or removing them and crushing the larvae. Spray with arsenicals.

Flat-Headed Borer (Chrysobothris Femorata)

Larva about an inch long, flesh-colored, the second segment ("head") greatly enlarged; boring under the bark and sometimes into the wood. They are readily located in late summer or fall by the dead and sunken patches of bark.

Preventive

Soap and carbolic acid washes applied from May to July. Keep trees vigorous.

Green Fruit-Worms (Xylina Sp.)

Yellowish or apple-green caterpillars, striped with cream-color, 1 to 1 1/2 inches in length when mature, attack the opening leaves and blossoms and eat holes in the developing fruit. The parent moths emerge from hibernation in early spring and lay their eggs on the smaller branches. One brood annually.

Treatment

Thorough and repeated spraying with arsenate of lead, six pounds in one hundred gallons of water, will kill many of the young caterpillars. Make the application when blossom clusters appear.

Gypsy Moth (Porthetria Dispar)

The full-grown caterpillar is about 2 inches long, dark gray in ground-color with eleven pairs of prominent tubercles on the back, the first five pairs blue, the last six dark red. They become full-grown about the first of July. They pupate in slight cocoons. The moths emerge in seven to seventeen days. The male has a light brown body, wings yellowish brown, and each front wing is crossed by four wavy dark brown lines. In the female the body is light buff and the wings grayish white. The dark markings on the front wings are similar to those of the male. The females do not fly, but each lays its eggs in a mass about an inch in length covered with hairs from its body. Hibernation takes place in the egg stage. The eggs hatch just as the buds are bursting.