Treatment

Kill the eggs by saturating the masses with crude coal-tar creosote, to which a little lamp-black has been added as a marker. When the young caterpillars hatch, spray the trees with arsenate of lead, ten pounds in one-hundred gallons of water. When the caterpillars are half-grown, use thirteen to fifteen pounds of lead arsenate. Full-grown caterpillars are very resistant to poisons. Band the tree trunks with tanglefoot to prevent the ascent of wandering caterpillars.

Leaf-Blister Mite

See Pear.

Leaf-Crumpler (Mineola Indigenella)

Reddish brown caterpillars that live in slender, horn-shaped cases and feed on the tender leaves. They hibernate as partly grown larvae and attack the opening buds the following spring. They usually live in a nest of several leaves fastened together with silk.

Treatment

Gather the nests and burn them. Arsenicals when the buds open.

Lesser Apple-Worm (Enarmonia Prunivora)

Similar to the codlin-moth, but larvae often feed just under the skin of the fruit, causing blotched areas.

Treatment

As for codlin-moth.

Oyster-Shell Scale (Lepidosaphes Ulmi)

This is an elongate scale (sometimes called bark-louse), 1/8 inch in length, resembling an oyster-shell in shape and often incrusting the bark. It hibernates as minute white eggs under the old scales. The eggs hatch during the latter part of May or in June, the date depending on the season. After they hatch, the young may be seen as tiny whitish lice crawling about on the bark. When these young appear, spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with six parts of water, or whale-oil, or any good soap, one pound in four or five gallons of water. Where trees are regularly sprayed with lime-sulfur, as for the San Jose scale or blister mite, the oyster-shell scale is usually controlled.

Palmer Worm (Ypsolophus Pometellus)

The brownish green, white-striped caterpillars, 1/2 inch in length when mature, skeletonize the tender foliage in June and eat holes in the young apples. There is only one brood a year.

Treatment

Spray with arsenate of lead, four pounds in one hundred gallons of water when the caterpillars first appear.

Plum-Curculio (Conotrachelus Nenuphar)

A snout-beetle that deforms the fruit by its characteristic feeding and egg-laying punctures. The grubs develop in the fruit and cause it to fall. Treatment. - Spraying with arsenate of lead, as for codlin-moth, whenever it can be applied with a fungicide so as not to increase expense, will help to control the trouble. Thorough superficial tillage of the surface of soil during July and August will kill many of the pupae, and is recommended. For treatment on plum, see under Plum.

Red Bugs (Heterocordylus Malinus And Lygidea Mendax)

The winter is passed as eggs inserted in the smaller branches. The brilliant red nymphs appear as the buds open and feed on the foliage for a time. Then they puncture the newly set apples causing one of three things: some drop, some dry up and remain on trees till next spring, and others mature as knotty, misshapen, worthless fruit. One generation a year.