This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(from Cedrus, the wood resembling that of Cedrus). Meliaceae. Including Toona. Ornamental trees, grown for their handsome foliage; some are valuable timber trees.
Trees with alternate, usually abruptly pinnate leaves, without stipules: lfts, petioled, entire or slightly serrate: flowers inconspicuous, whitish, usually perfect, 4-5-merous, in large, pendulous, terminal panicles; calyx short, 4-5-parted, the petals forming a tube with spreading limb, below partly adnate to the disk; stamens shorter than petals; ovary 5-celled; style simple, with capitate stigma, somewhat longer than the stamens: fruit a caps., dehiscent, with 5 valves not splitting to the base, with many flat, winged seeds. - Nine species in tropical Amer, and 8, forming the subgenus Toona, in E. India and Austral. Toona is often considered a distinct genus, distinguished from Cedrela by the disk being much longer than the ovary and by the seeds being winged above or at both ends, while in Cedrela the disk is as long or shorter than the ovary and the seeds are winged below. The first 3 species below belong to the subgenus Toona, the others are true cedrelas.
Cedrelas are tall ornamental trees with large pinnate foliage, well adapted for avenues: C. sinensis is hardy as far north as Massachusetts; the others are hardy only in southern California and in the Gulf states except C. odorata, which is tender even there. The wood of some species, particularly of C. odorata, is known as cedar wood, and much valued for making furniture and boxes. They thrive best in rich loam, and are propagated by seeds or by cuttings of mature wood, and, also, by root-cuttings, all with bottom heat.
a. leaflets 10-25.
b. Leaves quite glabrous.
c. Margin of leaves more or less serrate: panicles very long, pendulous: seeds winged above.
Juss. (Toona sinensis, Roem. Ailanthus flavescens, Carr.). Tree to 50 ft.: leaves long - petioled, 10-20 in. long; leaflets 10-22, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly and remotely serrate, light green beneath, 4-8 in. long: flowers white, in very long, pendulous panicles; ovary glabrous; 5 subulate staminodes alternating with the stamens: fruit oblong or obovate, about 1 in. long. June. China. R.H. 1891, p. 574-5; 1875, p. 87. Gng.4:l. M.D.G. 1902:495. F. 1876, p. 175. F.E. 13, p. 1. - Ornamental tree, with large feathery foliage; very valuable for avenues; similar to ailanthus, and nearly of the same hardiness, but of more regular and dense growth, and without the disagreeable odor when flowering. Ailanthus can be easily distinguished by the few coarse teeth near the base of the leaflets, each bearing a large gland beneath (Fig. 849).
Fig. 849. Leaflets of Cedrela and Ailanthus. Cedrela on the right. (X 1/3) bb. Leaves densely pubescent beneath.
Royle (Toona serrata, Roem.). Tree, to 70 ft.: leaves usually odd-pinnate, 15-20 in. long; leaflets 15-25, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-acuminate, irregularly serrate, glaucous beneath: panicles longer than the leaves, pendulous; flowers fragrant, often 6-merous; ovary glabrous. Himalayas, to 8,000 ft. altitude. Royle, 111. 25. Col-lett, Flor. Siml. 82. - This is probably the hardiest of the tropical species. Sometimes united with C. Toona.
cc. Margin of leaves entire: panicles shorter than the leaves Toona, Roxbg. (Toona ciliata, Roem.). Tree, to 70 ft., nearly evergreen: leaves abruptly pinnate; leaflets 10-20, usually opposite, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sometimes undulate, 3-6 in. long: flowers white, honey-scented, 5-merous; ovary hairy; seeds winged at both ends. Himalayas. Wight., Icon. 161. Bran-dis, Forest Flower 14.
Linn. West Indian Cedar. Tree, to 100 ft.: leaves 10-20 in. long; leaflets 12-20, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, entire, bright green on both sides, 4-6 in. long: panicles shorter than the leaves: fruit oblong, 1 1/2 in. long; seeds winged below. W. Indies. - The cedar wood comes mostly from this species. Wood brown, fragrant, the source of the cigar-box wood of commerce. It is a very durable wood, and is much prized in the W. Indies in the manufacture of cabinets, furniture, canoes, and other articles. In the W. Indies known as "cedar."
Veil. Tree: leaves 10-15 in. long, abruptly pinnate; leaflets 18-24, opposite, nearly sessile, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate: panicles pubescent, longer than the leaves; calyx pubescent outside; petals fulvous tomentose; ovary glabrous. Brazil, Paraguay. stem Hilaire, Flower Brazil. 2:101. - According to Franceschi it does better at Santa Barbara than any other species of this genus.
aa. leaflets 6-10, finely ciliate.
Dugesii, Wats. Tree: leaves 10-15 in. long; leaflets cuneate, ovate-lanceolate, long and slender acuminate, nearly entire, shining above, pale green and glabrous or nearly so beneath, 4-6 in. long: panicles rather compact, much shorter than the leaves Mex. Alfred Rehder.