This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(chamai, dwarf, and kuparissos, cypress; referring to its affinity). Pinaceae. Trees or shrubs grown for their handsome evergreen foliage; also valuable timber trees; Retinosporas, in part.
Evergreen, with opposite scale-like leaves in 4 rows, densely clothing the compressed branchlets: flowers monoecious, small; pistillate inconspicuous, globose; staminate yellow or red, oblong, often conspicuous by their abundance: cones small, globular, with 6-11 bracts, each bearing 2, or rarely 5, winged seeds, ripening the first season. Closely allied to Cupressus, which differs in its larger cones maturing the second year, the bracts containing 4 or more seeds, and in its quadrangular branches and minutely denticulate leaves - Six species in N. Amer. and E. Asia, all very valuable timber trees in their native countries. Highly ornamental evergreen trees of pyramidal habit, of which only C. thyoides is fully hardy N., while the Japanese species are hardy in sheltered positions north to New England, and C. Lawsoniana only from Mass. south; the horticultural varieties are often shrubby.
They grow best in somewhat moist but well-drained, sandy loam and in a partly shaded position, sheltered against dry winds. C. Lawsoniana and C. obtusa like more dry, the others more moist situations, and C. thyoides grows well even in swamps. Propagated by seeds sown in spring; increased also by cuttings from mature wood in fall, inserted in a sandy soil and kept in a coolframe or greenhouse during the winter; if in early spring gentle bottom heat can be given, it will hasten the development of roots considerably. All the so-called retinosporas and the dwarfer forms, and most of the varieties of C. Lawsoniana, are readily increased in this way, while the other forms of C. noot-katensis, C. obtusa and C. thyoides do not grow well from cuttings; therefore for most varieties veneer-grafting on seedling stock during the winter in greenhouse is preferred, but dwarf forms always should be grown from cuttings, as they often lose their dwarf habit if grafted. The so-called retinosporas of the gardens, with linear, spreading leaves, are juvenile forms, which have retained the foliage of the seedling state.
There are similar forms in Thuja. For their distinguishing characters, see Retinospora. For the numerous gardens forms, see Beissner, Handb. der Nadel-holzk., 2d ed., pp. 528-574, quoted below as Beissner.
a. Leaves green on both sides or paler beneath.
Brit. (C. sphaeroidea, Spach. Cupressus thyoides, Linn.). White Cedar. Tree, to 70 or 80 ft., with erect-spreading branches: branchlets irregularly arranged, spreading, not pendulous, very thin and slender, flattened: leaves closely imbricate, glaucous or light green, with a conspicuous gland on the back, fragrant: cones small, 1/4in- diam., bluish purple, with glaucous bloom. From Maine to Fla.,.west to Miss. S.S. 10:529. M.D.G. 1896:301 (habit). Beissner 529 (habit). variety ericoides, Sudworth (C. ericoides, Carr. Retinospora ericoides, Hort.). Compact shrub, of erect, dense habit: leaves linear-lanceolate, spreading, with 2 glaucous lines beneath, coloring in winter usually reddish brown. Beissner 532; see also Retinospora. variety andelyensis, Silva-Tarouca (C. sphaeroidea andelyensis, Carr. C. leptoclada, Hochst. Retinospora leptoclada, Hort., not Zucc). Intermediate form between the former and the type; bluish green, and of erect growth, with loosely appressed, lanceolate leaves; often some branchlets with leaves of the type and some with leaves of the variety ericoides.
R.H. 1869, p. 32, and 1880, p. 36. M.D.G. 1890:329. R.B. 2:155. Beissner 532; see also Retinospora. variety glauca, Sudworth (C. sphseroidea glauca, Endl. variety kewensis, Hort.). Of compact habit, very glaucous, with silvery hue. variety variegata, Sudworth (Cupressus thyoides variegata, Loud.). Branchlets partially colored golden yellow.
Sudworth (Cupressus nootkatensis, Lambert. C. nutkaensis, Spach. Thuyopsis borealis, Hort.). Yellow Cedar. Tree, to 120 ft., with ascending branches, pendulous at the extremities: branchlets distichously arranged, slightly flattened or nearly quadrangular, pendulous: leaves densely imbricate, usually dark green, acute, mostly without glands: cones subglobose, nearly 1/2in. diam., dark red-brown, with glaucous bloom. From Sitka to Ore. S.S. 10:530. R.H. 1869, p. 48. G. 19:345. F.E. 25:543. Gt. 53, p. 542. G.W. 8, p. 484; 10, pp. 41, 227. Beissner 555. Gn. 5:395. G.C. III. 40:167. variety glauca, Regel (Thuyopsis borealis variety glauca, Jaeger). With very glaucous foliage. variety pendula, Beissn. Distinctly pendulous. Gt. 53, p. 542. G.W. 1, p. 300. G.C. III. 40:166. Beissner 539. variety lutea, Beissn. The young growth colored fight yellow. J.H.S. 1902:427, fig. 113. Gn. 50, p. 68. Gn.W. 11:313. - There are other forms with variegated leaves C. nootkatensis is about as hardy as the Japanese species.
aa. Leaves with glaucous or whitish marks beneath: branches with horizontally spreading ramifications.