Otto, Tenn. Large, oblong, very downy at tip, very sweet, and rich.


Rochester, N. Y. First fruited at Alton, 111. Nuts medium to large; somewhat rounded, usually three in a bur; of dull brown color, downy at tip; quality excellent. Tree a very rapid grower and a heavy bearer; ripens late.


Fay, Pa. Medium to large, slightly downy, compressed, very good.

Successive stages in the ravages of the chestnut blight. 1909, 1910, 1911.

Fig. 916. Successive stages in the ravages of the chestnut blight. 1909, 1910, 1911.

European Group

It_ is a significant fact that, during the century that has elapsed since the introduction of this species, the imported named varieties of Europe have not found favor in eastern America. Seedling trees have been found productive and profitable at many points in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, however, and these form the basis of the culture of the species east of the continental divide. West of the Rocky Mountains, several of the choice French "Marrons" are reported to succeed in California and Oregon. Among the more important varieties of the European group in America, are the following:


Flushing, N. J. Bur medium to small; nuts of medium size, bright reddish brown, pubescent at the tip and over half of the nut. Tree a strong grower, with medium to small leathery leaves. Very productive.


Milltown, Pa. Bur medium to small; nut medium, thickly pubescent at tip, dark reddish mahogany color; three in a bur; unusually free from insect attack; quality good. Tree vigorous, spreading, with large leaves; productive.

Combale (Marron Combale)

France. A large and handsome, bright brown striped nut, with but little tomentum at tip; usually two, sometimes but one in a bur. Somewhat grown in California, where it was introduced from France about 1870.

Chalon (Syn., Marron Chalon Early)

France. Sparingly grown in California. Nut of medium size, early, productive, precocious.


Plymouth Meeting, Pa. Bur large, with thin husk; nuts large, usually three in a bur; dark brown, ridged, heavily pubescent at tip; quality very good. Tree vigorous, spreading, very productive.


Camden, Del. Bur medium; nut medium to large, dark brown, thickjy tomentose, usually three in a bur; quality good. Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; a seedling of Ridgely.


Wilmington, Del. Bur medium to small; nut medium to large, usually three in a bur; dark, distinctly striped, thickly tomentose at tip; sweet, good. Tree vigorous. One of the earliest to ripen of this group.

Lyon (Marron De Lyon)

France. A large, round nut of fair quality, grown in a small way in California, but less productive than Combale, which it resembles.


This term is used by the French to designate the larger cultivated chestnuts, most of which have relatively few nuts, often only one in a bur.


Dover, Del. A seedlingof Ridgely. Bur medium; nuts medium, of light color, heavily tomentose. Tree vigorous, spreading, very productive.


France. A large, handsome variety from central France, and there considered very productive and valuable. Has been tested in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California without marked success in any locality.


Morrisville, Pa. Bur medium conical; nut large, from two to three in a bur; bright brown striped, thinly tomentose, of good quality. Tree compact and drooping, rather uncertain in bearing.

Paragon (Syn., Great American; Sobers Paragon)

Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. Bur very large; nut large, usually three in a bur, broad, plump, thickly tomentose at the tip, and thinly over two-thirds of surface, color dull brown, quality very good. Tree hardy, spreading, vigorous, with narrow, coarsely serrate leaves having a narrow base; subject to leaf-blight, but very productive. The most widely planted and most uniformly successful variety of chestnut yet cultivated in the United States. Possibly a hybrid with C. dentata.

Quercy (Syn., Marron Quercy)

France. A beautiful, medium-sized nut, commended in portions of California for precocity, earli-ness, productiveness and quality.

Ridgely (Syn., Du Pont)

Dover, Del. Bur medium; nut medium to large, moderately tomentose, dark, of very good quality. Tree vigorous, with narrow leaves free from blight, spreading, very productive, hardy.


Burlington, N. J. Bur medium; nut medium, slightly pointed, usually three in a bur; glossy, dark brown, slightly tomentose at the tip. Tree open, spreading, very productive; said to be comparatively free from attacks of weevil.


Concordville, Pa. Bur medium; nut medium pointed, dark brown, striped, tomentose at tip, 1 to 3 in a bur. Tree very vigorous, upright, with large, dark green leaves; free from disease.

Japanese Group

Though most of the imported Japanese chestnuts have been found of poor quality for eating in the fresh state, the product of many imported seedling trees, and of a number of American-grown seedlings of this type, is equal to the European nut in this respect. The Japanese varieties in general have the advantage, also, of greater precocity and productiveness, larger size and earlier maturity of nut, greater freedom from injury by leaf diseases and nut-eating insect larvae. As productiveness and earliness are the most important points in chestnut-culture at the present time, this type is the most important to commercial nut-growers. Because of the ease with which chestnuts hybridize, the disease-resistance of varieties that have originated from seed produced within the habitat of the American chestnut must be regarded as doubtful until thoroughly tested. Information as to the place of production of the seed from which the several varieties originated is therefore of importance in selecting varieties for planting.