(Greek for snow and flower; alluding to the abundance of snow-white flowers)". Oleaceae. Fringe Tree. Woody plants grown for their profusely produced white flowers.

Shrubs or low trees, with deciduous, opposite and entire Ivs.: flowers in loose panicles from lateral buds at the end of last year's branches, white, dioecious or only functionally dioecious; calyx 4-cleft; corolla divided nearly to the base in 4 narrow petals; stamens 2, short; ovary superior, 2-celled; style very short with a 2-lobed stigma: fruit a 1-seeded oval drupe. - Two species in E. N. Amer. and China. Ornamental shrubs, with large, dark green foliage, and very showy white flowers in early summer. The American species is almost hardy N., but requires a somewhat sheltered position; the Chinese may be more tender, but has proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum. They thrive best in a somewhat moist and sandy loam, and in a sunny position. Prop, by seeds sown in fall or stratified; increased also by layers and by grafting under glass or budding in the open air on ash seedlings (in Europe, Fraxinus Ornus is preferred); sometimes by cuttings from forced plants in early spring.


Linn. Fig. 920. Large shrub or slender tree, to 30 ft.: Ivs. oval or oblong, acuminate, pubescent beneath when young, mostly glabrous at length, 4-8 in. long: panicles 4-6 in. long, pendulous; flowers functionally dioecious; petals 1 in. long: fruit dark blue, ovoid, 3/4in. long. May, June. From Pa. to Fla. and Texas. L.B. C. 13: 1264. Gt. 16:564. Mn. 2: 154. G. F. 7: 325. A.G. 22:362. F.E. 29:733. Gng. 16:306. G.M. 31:527. V. 10:227. G.W. 8, p. 293. M.D.G. 1899:412, 413;1900: 413; 1907:73, 337. - Variable in shape and pubescence of the Ivs., and several varieties have been distinguished, but none of them sufficiently distinct for horticultural purposes. The staminate plants are showier in flower on account of their larger panicles and broader petals, but lack the attractive pendulous blue fruits in autumn. Root-bark tonic, febrifuge, laxative; reputed narcotic, retusa, Lindl. (C. chinensis, Maxim.). Shrub, with spreading branches, or small tree, to 20 ft.: Ivs. obovate or oval to oval-oblong, acute or obtuse, sometimes emarginate, pubescent on the veins beneath, at least when young, and reticulate; petioles densely pubescent: flowers dioecious, fragrant, in panicles 2-4 in. long; petals about 1/2in. long; narrow oblong: drupe ovoid, dark blue, 1/2\n. long, China. P.F.G. 3, p. 85. G.C. 11.23:821; 111.47:328, 329. Gt. 35, p. 667. A.G. 13:374; 20:107; 22:363. Mn. 2:157. G.F. 7:327. G. 29:347; 33:521. Gn. W. 8:453. - Young plants have the Ivs. serrulate.

Alfred Rehder.

Chionanthus virginica

Fig. 920. Chionanthus virginica