Aside from the florist's chrysanthemum (C. hor-torum), no particular skill is required in the growing of these plants, although great perfection is attained by some gardeners in the handling of individual plants of the marguerites (C. frutescens). The hardy border perennial .chrysanthemums may be either small-flowered rugged forms of C. hortorum, as the "hardy pompons" and also the "artemisias" of old gardens, or they may be other species. Some of these other species are the "pyrethrums" of gardens, and some (as the C. maximum and C. vliginosum class) are the "moon daisies" and "moonpenny daisies" of the hardy perennial plantation. Some of the very dwarf tufted kinds (as C. Tchihatchewii) make excellent edging plants. The moon daisies deserve to be better known for mass planting and bold lines when a great display of heavy white bloom is wanted. Most of them bloom the first season from early-sown seed. The Shasta daisy and its derivatives are of the moon daisy group. They all profit by a covering of coarse mulch in the fall.

See Pyrethrum and Marguerite.

The annual chrysanthemums are easily grown flower-garden subjects, suitable for a bold late display in places where delicate and soft effects are not desired.

Chrysanthemum carinatum, the form sold as C. Burridgeanum. (X 1/3)

Fig. 927. Chrysanthemum carinatum, the form sold as C. Burridgeanum. (X 1/3)

C. carinalum, C. coronarium and C. segetum are the common sources of these annuals. They are hardy and rugged; and they need much room.

a. Plant annual (at least so treated in cultivation): the "summer chrysanthemums." b. Rays typically white.

1. Carinatum, Schousb

(C. tricolor, Andr. C. matricaroides, Hort.). Fig. 927. Glabrous annual, 2-3 ft. high: stem much branched: leaves rather fleshy, pinnatifid: flowers in solitary heads which are nearly 2 in. across, with typically white rays and a yellow ring at the base; involucral bracts carinate (keeled). Summer. The two colors, together with the dark purple disk, gave rise to the name "tricolor." The typical form, introduced into England from Morocco in 1798, was pictured in B.M. 508 (1799). By 1856 signs of doubling appeared (F.S. 11:1099). In 1858 shades of red in the rays appeared in a strain introduced by F. K. Burridge, of Colchester, England, and known as C. Burridgeanum, Hort. (see B.M. 5095, which shows a ring of red on the rays, adding a fourth color to this remarkably brilliant and varied flower, and F.S. 13:1313, which also shows C. venustum, Hort., in which the rays are entirely red, except the original yellow circle at the base). G. 2:307. Gn.W. 24:675. C. annulatum, Hort., is a name for the kinds with circular bands of red, maroon, or purple. R.H. 1869:450. C. Dunnetti, Hort., is another seed-grower's strain. There are full double forms in yellow margined red, and white margined red, the flowers 3 in. across (see R.H. 1874:410), under many names.

See, also, Gn. 26, p. 440; 10, p. 213; 21:22. R.H. 1874, p. 412. S.H. 2:477. G.W. 14, p. 99. - The commonest and gaudiest of annual chrysanthemums, distinguished by the keeled or ridged scales of involucre and the dark purple disk.

bb. Rays typically light yellow.

2. Coronarium, Linn

(Anthemis coronaria, Hort.), Annual, 3-4 ft.: leaves bipinnately parted, somewhat clasping or eared at the base, glabrous, the segments closer together than in C. carinatum: involucral scales broad, scarious; rays lemon-colored or nearly white. July-Sept. Medit. Gn. 26:440. G.C. II. 1*9:541. - The full double forms, with rays reflexed and imbricated, are more popular than the single forms. This and C. carinatum are the common "summer chrysanthemums." This is common in old gardens, and is also somewhat used for bedding and for pot culture.

bbb. Rays typically golden yellow.

3. Segetum, Linn

Corn Marigold. Annual, 1-1 1/2 ft.: leaves sparse, clasping, oblong to oblanceolate, variable, the lower petioled and the upper clasping, incisions coarse or fine, deep or shallow, but usually only coarsely serrate, with few and distant teeth, the lower ones less cut: bracts of involucre broad, obtuse; rays obovate and emarginate, golden yellow. June-Aug. Eu., N. Africa, W. Asia. Escaped in waste places. Gn. 18, p. 195. R.H. 1895, pp. 448, 449. variety grandifldrum, Hort., is a larger-fid. form of this weed, which is common in the English grain fields. Forms of the plant are cultivated; the variety Cloth of Gold, J.H. III. 12:445, is one of the best. variety pumilum, Hort., very compact, 8 in. high. This species is much less popular than P. carina-tum and P. coronarium. It is forced to a slight extent for winter bloom.

4. Multicaule, Desf

Glabrous and glaucous annual, 6-12 in. high: stems numerous, simple or branched, stout, terete: leaves fleshy, variable, usually linear-spatulate, 1-3 in. long and 1/2 -3/4 in. broad, very coarsely toothed or lobed, sometimes shorter, with few narrow-linear, acute, entire segments about 1 line broad: rays much shorter and rounder than in C. segetum, golden yellow. Algeria. B.M. 6930. - Rarer in cult, than the last. Said to be useless as a cut-flower

aa. Plant perennial.

B. The florist's chrysanthemum, and wild progenitors or near relatives, grown as pot or bench subjects because the seasons are not long enough, in the N., for full maturity in the open: rays of many forms and colors in cultivation; heads often double: leaves usually lobed or strongly notched.

5. Morifo1ium, Ram

(C. sinense, Sabine). Fig. 928. Perennial, one of the sources (with C. indicum) of the large florist's chrysanthemums: wild plant shrubby, erect and rigid, 2-3 ft., branching, few-lvd.: leaves thick and stiff, 2 in. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, variable in shape from ovate to lanceolate, cuneate at base, margin entire or coarsely toothed: outer bracts of involucre thick, linear, acute, white-tomentose; flower-heads small, with yellow disk and white rays somewhat exceeding the disk. China. G.C. III. 31:302 (adapted in Fig. 928). variety gracile, Hemsl. Leaves thin or only moderately thick, palmately lobed or pinnately lobed, dentate, the teeth often mucronate: outer involucral bracts herbaceous, linear and acute, varying in pubescence; rays white, pink or lilac, equaling or exceeding the disk. China, Mongolia, Japan.