This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Paris Daisy. Figs. 931, 932. Usually glabrous, 3 ft. high, perennial: leaves fleshy, green: heads numerous, always single; rays typically white, with a lemon-colored (never pure yellow or golden) form. Canaries. G.C. II. 13:561; III. 35:216. Gn. 12, p. 255; 17, p. 5; 26, p. 445; 70, p. 310. -Intro, into England. 1699. This is the popular florists' Marguerite, which can be had in flower the year round, but is especially grown for winter bloom. variety grandifidrum, Hort., is the large-fid. prevailing form. The lemon-colored form seems to have originated about 1880. Under this name an entirely distinct species has also been passing, yet it has never been advertised separately in the American trade. See No. 13.
Fig. 931. Chrysanthemum frutescens. The Marguerite or Paris daisy. (X 1/2)
GG. Foliage glaucous.
(C. famiculaceum, Steud. P. famiculaceum variety bipinnatifidum, DC). Glaucous Marguerite. Fig. 932. Perennial: rarer in cult, than C. frutescens (which see), but distinguished by its glaucous hue, and by the way in which the leaves are cut. The segments are narrower, more deeply cut, and more distant than in No. 12. The leaves are shorter petioled. Canaries. - This species is doubtless cult, in American greenhouses as C. frutescens. A lemon-flowered form is shown in R.H. 1845:61 but called C. frutescens.
ff. Group of hardy outdoor herbs: stems usually unbranched: rays white or red, never yellow.
G. Foliage not glaucous: flowers sometimes double. 14. coccineum, Willd. (Pyrethrum roseum, Bieb., not Web. & Mohr. P. hybridum, Hort.). Fig. 933. Glabrous perennial, 1-2 ft. high: stem usually unbranched, rarely branched at the top: leaves thin, dark green, or in dried specimens dark brown: involucral scales with a brown margin; rays white or red in such shades as pink, carmine, rose, lilac, and crimson, and sometimes tipped yellow, but never wholly yellow. Caucasus, Persia. F.S. 9:917. Gn. 26, pp. 440, 443. Gng. 2:7; 5:309. R.H. 1897, p. 521. Not B.M. 1080, which is C coronopifolium. The first picture of a full double form is R. H. 1864:71. - This species is the most important and variable of all the hardy herbaceous kinds. There have been perhaps 700 named horticultural varieties. There is an anemone-fid. form with a high disk. The species is also cult, in Calif, and France for insect powder. C. atrosanguineum, Hort., is said to be a good horticultural variety with dark crimson flowers The C. roseum of Weber & Mohr being a tenable name, Hoffmann proposes Ascherson's name, C. Marschallii, for the P. roseum of Bieberstein; but Willdenow's C. coccineum is here retained.
Fig. 932. Leaves of Chrysanthemum frutescens (left) and C. anethifolium (right). (XI)
GG. Foliage glaucous: flowers never double.
Glaucous perennial, slender, 12-15 in. high: stems unbranched, with a few short, scattered hairs below the flower: leaves long-petioled, silky beneath, with distant segments: involucral scales scarious and whitish at the apex. Dalmatia. B.M. 6781. - Said to be chief source of Dalmatian insect powder. Rarely cult, as border plant. Common in botanic gardens.
cc. Leaves not cut to the midrib, pinnatifid or coarsely toothed (except perhaps in No. 22).
d. Heads borne in clusters, mostly flat-topped
(Tanacetum Balsamita, Linn. Pyrethrum Balsamita, Willd. Balsamita vulgaris, Willd.). Costmary. Mint Geranium. Sometimes erroneously called "lavender," from its sweet agreeable odor. Tall and stout perennial: leaves sweet-scented, oval or oblong, obtuse, margined with blunt or sharp teeth, lower ones petioled, upper ones almost sessile, the largest leaves 5-11 in. long, 1 1/2-2 in. wide: pappus a short crown. W. Asia. - Typically with short white rays, but when they are absent the plant is variety tana-cetoides, Boiss. Fig. 934. Rayless. This has escaped in a few places from old gardens: it seems to be the prevailing garden form.
Fig. 933. Chrysanthemum coccineum. The Pyrethrum roseum of gardens. (X 1/2 )
Fig. 934. Chrysanthemum Balsamita variety tanacetoides. Costmary or mint geranium. (X 1/2)
dd. Heads borne singly on the branches or stems, or at least not in definite clusters; rays large, white.
(C. latifblium, DC). Fig. 935. Perennial; endlessly confused with C. maximum in gardens, and the two species are very variable and difficult to distinguish; the flowers can hardly be told apart. C. lacustre is a taller and more vigorous plant, and sometimes it is branched at the top, bearing 3 heads, while C. maximum is always 1-headed, and the leaves in that species are much narrower. Height 3-6 ft.: stem sparsely branched: leaves partly clasping, ovate-lanceolate, with coarse, hard teeth: rays about 1 in. long; pappus of the ray 2-3-eared. Portugal, along rivers, swamps and lakes. R.H. 1857, p. 456.
Fig. 935. Chrysanthemum lacustre. A short-rayed form. (X 1/3)