This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Fig. 936. This perennial species has narrower leaves than C. lacustre, and they are narrowed at the base: height 1 ft.: stem more angled than the above, simple or branched at the very base, always 1-headed and leafless for 3-4 in. below the head: lower leaves petioled, wedge-shaped at the base, or long-oblanceolate; the upper leaves becoming few, lanceolate but usually not very prominently pointed, the teeth not very large or striking: pappus none: involucral scales narrower and longer, whitish-transparent at the margin, while those of C. lacustre are broader, more rounded at the apex, and with a light brown scarious margin. Pyrenees. J.H. III. 5:251. Gn. 26, p. 437; 73, p. 567. G. 5:445. G.M. 46:676. variety RObin-sonii, Hort., has finely cut or fringed rays, giving the bloom the appearance of a Japanese chrysanthemum.
Fig. 936. Chrysanthemum maximum. ( X 1/3) a. Single forms: rays in 1 series, or few series: disk low and flat.
R. H. 1904:515. variety Davidsii, Hort., has stems of great length, suitable for cutting. variety filiforme, Hort., has deeply serrate long and drooping rays. There are many other forms, differing in time of bloom as well as in habit and in form of flower The Shasta daisy (said to be a hybrid) is an early-flowering very floriferous race, with several strains of flowers, mostly large and pure white, although in one form the buds are reported as lemon-yellow but opening white; various sub-varieties are now offered. It is a good summer and autumn bloomer, and usually hardy in the northeastern states.
(Pyreth-rumuliginbsum, Waldst.). Giant Daisy. Stout, erect bushy leafy-stemmed perennial, 4-7 ft. high, with light green foliage: stem nearly glabrous, striate, branching above, roughish: leaves long-lanceolate, prominently pointed, with large coarse sharp teeth: heads often several together and not long-stalked, 2-3 in. across, white, late. Hungary. B.M.2706. A.F. 4:523; 8:813. Gng. 2:375; 5: 183. A.G. 19:403. R.H. 1894, p. 82. Gt. 46, p. 103. G.C.II. 10:493. Gn. 26, p. 442; 38, p. 523; 62, p. 180. G.W.15, p. 316. G.M. 51:453. Gn. W. 23:415. -It blooms the first year from seed or division, and has been forced for Easter somewhat as Hydrangea paniculata can be treated. Excellent for cut-flowers The blossoms should be cut soon after opening, as the disks darken with age. The plant needs a rich moist soil; it deserves a greater popularity.
(Leucanthemum vulgare, Lam.). Whiteweed. Ox-eye Daisy. Fig. 937. Glabrous perennial erect weed, 1-2 ft. high: root-leaves long-petioled, with a large, oval blade and coarse, rounded notches: stem - leaves lanceolate, becoming narrower toward the top, serrate, with few distant and sharper teeth. (variety pinnatifidum, Lec. & Lam., has more divided leaves): heads terminal, showy white. June, July. Eu., N. Asia. Gn. 70, p. 176. -One of the commonest weeds in the eastern states, being characteristic of worn-out meadows. The daisies are not cultivated, but they are often gathered for decoration, and make excellent cut-flowers The plant is very variable, and forms adapted to flower-garden uses will probably be developed. Rayless plants are sometimes found.
Fig. 937. Chrysanthemum Leu-canthemum. Ox-eye daisy, or whiteweed. (X 1/2)
(Leucdnthemum nipponicum, Franch.). Differs from others of this set in being shrubby at base and leaves broadest above the middle: to 2 ft., the stems strong, simple, few-fid.: leaves thick, oblong-spatulate to oblanceolate, sessile, irregularly denticulate but entire at base, 3-4 in. long, pale beneath: flower-heads 2-3 1/2in. across, with a hemispherical involucre of oval obtuse bracts; rays bright white, linear, minutely 5-toothed; disk pale greenish yellow. Japan. B.M. 7660. R.H. 1905, p. 47. F. E. 20: 434. - Hardy in the N., in the root, but the stems killed down by frost; has the general appearance of C. lacustre. A beautiful large-flowered species, producing its large blooms in late autumn.
Low perennial, 3-15 in., glabrous or nearly so: leaves cuneate, long - tapering at base, toothed or cut at the apex, sometimes 3-5-lobed, the uppermost ones small and very narrow and nearly entire: involucre-bracts broad and brown-margined; rays clear white, about 1 in. long: pappus wanting. Arctic Eu., Asia and Amer. -An attractive very hardy species, making a clump of dark green foliage and producing in autumn many large white flowers, sometimes tinged lilac or rose.
C. coronopifolium, Willd. = C. roseum. - C. grande, Hook. f. (Plagius grandiflorus, L'Her.). Stout erect perennial of Algeria, 2-3 ft.: leaves oblong to linear-oblong, often lyrate, coarsely toothed: flower-heads large, solitary, ray-less, golden yellow, to 2 in. across. B.M. 7886. - C. grandiflorum, Willd. Shrubby, smooth, from the Canaries, with cuneate lobed leaves, the parts lanceolate or linear and toothed or entire: flower-heads solitary, the rays white and disk yellow: allied to C. frutescens; variable. - C. inoddrum, Linn.=Matricaria inodora. - C. macro-phyllum, Waldst. & Kit. Perennial herb, 3 ft.: leaves very large, nearly sessile, pinnatisect, the lobes lanceolate and coarsely toothed: heads very many, corymbed; rays white with yellowish tinge, the disk yellow. June, July; an outdoor plant. Hungary. G.W. 12, p. 410. - C. Mawii, Hook. f. Herbaceous, with woody root-stock, 1 1/2 ft.: leaves about 1 in. long, triangular to oblong, pinnatifid: flower-heads 1 1/2 in. diam., long-stalked; rays 3-toothed, white with reddish backs. Mts. Morocco; summer in the open.
B.M. 5997. - C. multiflo-rum, Hort. Flowers greenish white: said to be a cross between a single-fid. chrysanthemum and C. Pallasia-num (Pyrethrum Pallasianum, Maxim., of N. Asia, apparently not a garden species). - C. ochroleiicum, Masf. Glabrous undershrub of the Canaries: leaves obovate-cuneate, coarsely toothed: rays pale yellow. -C. parthenifolium, Willd., a form of C. Parthenium. -C. partheniodes, Voss. One of the feverfew forms; probably C. praealtum. - C. rdseum, Web. & Mohr. (C. coronopifolium, Willd., not Vill.), not Bieb. Perennial herb, 2 1/2 ft.: leaves once-pinnate: flower-heads solitary; rays rose-red or flesh-color. Caucasus. - C. tomentosum, Loisel. An alpine Corsican species: tufted, 2 in. high when in bloom: leaves pinnatifid, densely tomentose: flower-heads 3/4in. across, white-rayed, on stems 1 in. long. - C. viscosum, Desf. Annual: disk orange-yellow, rays sulfur-yellow. Medit. - C. vulgare, Bernh.=Tanacetum vulgare. -C. Zawadskii, Herbich, of Gallicia, is a tufted plant with rose-tinted flowers all summer.
Wilhelm Mlller. L. H. B.†