This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
The common chrysanthemums of the florists (C. hortorum) are often called "large-flowering," and "autumn chrysanthemums," to distinguish them from the hardy outdoor kinds, although neither of these popular names is entirely accurate or distinctive. They are the blended product of C. indicum and C. morifolium, two species of plants that grow wild in China and Japan. The outdoor or hardy chrysanthemums are derived from the same species, being less developed forms. The florist's chrysanthemum is not necessarily a glasshouse subject; but it is bloomed under glass for protection and to secure a longer season. Ten to fifteen dominant types of chrysanthemums have been recognized by the National Chrysanthemum Society of England. The words "types," "races," and "sections," have always been used by horticulturists to express much the same thing, but types can always be defined clearly, while sections cannot, and the word race should be restricted to cultivated varieties that reproduce their character by seed, which is not the case with the large - flowering chrysanthemums. The following explanation and scheme, it is hoped, will clearly set forth the main types, and explain some of the many terms that confuse the beginner.
The horticultural sections are wholly arbitrary, being chiefly for the convenience of competitors at exhibitions, and therefore changing with the fashions. The present classification is based on the form of the flower, as each type can be had in any color found in the whole genus.
Fig. 950. Flowers about 2 in. across, star-like, i. e., with the rays arranged in one series around the yellow disk. "Single," however, is a relative term, and in Fig. 950 there is more than one series of rays, but this does not destroy the "singleness" of effect. All flowers are either single, semi-double, or double, but all the intermediate forms between the two extremes of singleness and doubleness tend to disappear, as they are not desired.
Like the preceding, but the s. 4 in. or more across, and fewer. The large and small single types are practically never grown outdoors and are best suited for pot culture, each specimen bearing 20-80 flowers They are also grown by fiorists in considerable quantity for cutting.
Fig. 939. Japanese anemone chrysanthemum when fully expanded.
Fig. 938. The small and regular anemone type.
AA. Anemone-fid. forms: rays as in a: disk high and rounded.
b. Flowers (florets) small, numerous, regular.
Commonly called "Pompon Anemone." Fig. 938. Flowers 2-3 in. across, and usually more numerous than in the large anemone type. All the anemone forms are essentially single, but the raised disk, with its elongated tubular flowers, usually yellow but often of other colors, gives them a distinct artistic effect, and they are, therefore, treated as intermediates in character between the single and double forms. Like the single forms, they are less popular than the double kinds, and the varieties are, therefore, less numerous and more subject to the caprices of fashion.
bb. Flowers large, fewer, regular. 4. The Large Anemone Type. - Flowers 4 in or more across and fewer. Heads must have large size, high neatly formed centers, and regularly arranged florets, the disk being composed of long tubes or quills and the rays flat and horizontally arranged.
bbb. Flowers large, few, irregular.
5. The Japanese Anemone Type. - Fig. 939. Flowers 4 in. or more across, and irregular in outline; fantastic and extreme anemone forms.
aaa. Double-fid. forms: rays in many series: disk absent or nearly so.
B. Flowers small; rays short.
Figs. 940, 949. Flowers 1-2 in. across. The outdoor kinds are likely to be small, flat and buttonlike, while those cult, indoors are usually larger and nearly globular. Fig. 940 shows the former condition. It is from one of the old hardy kinds long cult, in the gardens as "Chinese" or "small-flowered" chrysanthemums, and commonly supposed to be the product of C. indicum, as opposed to the "Japanese" or "large-flowered" kinds introduced in 1862, which marked a new era by being less formal and more fanciful than any of the preceding kinds. Pompons are little cultivated, under glass in Amer., being regarded mostly as outdoor subjects.
bb. Flowers large. c. Blossoms hairy.
Fig. 941. Also called "Ostrich Plume" and "Japanese Hairy." The famous prototype is the variety Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, pictured in Gn. 35, p. 307, which was sold for $1,500 in 1888, and started the American chrysanthemum craze. White flowers with long hairs are very delicate and pretty, but the hairs are often minute, and on many of the colored flowers they are considered more curious and interesting than beautiful. So far, nearly all hairy chrysanthemums are of the Japanese Incurved type. Since the hairs are on the backs of the florets, they show best in incurved types.
Fig. 940. Type of pompon chrysanthemum. Grown outdoors, with no special care.
cc. Blossorns not hairy. d. Rays reflexed.