This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Also called "Recurved." Fig. 942. The reflexed forms can be easily broken up into 3 types, (a) the small and regular, (b) the large and regular, and (c) the large and irregular types. The latest standard requires that reflexed flowers have hemi-spheroidal heads, with no trace of thinness in the center, and broad overlapping florets.
dd. Rays incurved. E. Form absolutely regular.
Fig. 943 shows the general idea, but such a flower would hardly win a prize at an
English show, where anything short of absolute regularity is relegated to the "Japanese Incurved" section (No. 10). This form is by far the most clear-cut ideal of any of these types, and for many years this ideal of the florists so completely dominated the English chrysanthemum shows that the incurved section came to be known there as the "exhibition" or "show type." In America the Japanese types, which are less formal and fanciful, early prevailed, but in England this has been the most important section of all.
ee. Form more or less irregular.
This section and the next have been the most important in America. There are many variations of this type. It often happens that the outer 4 or 5 series of rays gradually become reflexed, but if most of the rays are incurved, the variety may be exhibited in this section. Fig. 943.
ddd. Rays of various shapes: forms diverse.
The word "Japanese" was originally used to designate the large-flowered fantastic kinds, introduced by Robert Fortune from Japan in 1862. It has never been restricted to varieties imported directly from Japan, but has always included seedlings raised in the western world. Before 1862, all florists' flowers in England were relatively formal and small. The informal, loose, grotesque, Japanese chrysanthemums, introduced by Fortune broke up the conventional era, and the demand for large specimen blooms that resulted in flower-shows all over the world reached Amer. in 1889. The "Japanese section" now means little more than "Miscellaneous." The 10 types previously mentioned can be rather accurately defined, but the Japanese section is purposely left undefined to include everything else. All the tubular and quilled sorts are now included in it, although formerly kept distinct.
Fig. 941. Hairy type.
Fig. 942. Reflexed type.
Relative importance and uses of the foregoing types. In general, the large-flowered forms are more popular than the small-flowered forms, especially at exhibitions, where great size is often the greatest factor in prize-winning. Types 9, 10 and 11 are the most important in America, especially the Japanese section. The flowers of types 9 and 10 are likely to be more compact and globular, and hence better for long shipments than the looser and more fanciful types. Types 9, 10 and 11 are those to which most care is given, especially in disbudding and training. They are the ones most commonly grown by the florists for cut-flowers, and whenever one large flower on a long stem is desired. The anemone-flowered forms are all usually considered as curiosities, especially the Japanese anemones, which are often exhibited as freaks and oddities. The single and anemone-flowered forms are used chiefly for specimens in pots with many small flowers, but all the other types are used for the same purpose. For outdoor culture, the hardy pompons, with their numerous small flowers, are usually better than the large-flowering or Japanese kinds.
As an indication of the constant change in standards of appreciation, may be cited the present popularity of short-stemmed chrysanthemums (Fig. 944) as distinguished from the greatly elongated stem that was exclusively desired some years ago; and also the demand for bushy many-flowered plants, producing small bloom as compared with the former excessively large detached flowers.
Fig. 943. Type of Japanese incurved chrysanthemum.
The current English classification.
The Floral Committee of the National Chrysanthemum Society (of England) in 1912 published the following "new classification of Chrysanthemums" (published also in American Florist, Sept. 21, 1912, by Elmer D. Smith):
The distinguishing characteristics of this section are the globular form and regular outline of the blooms. The flower should be as nearly a globe as possible, as depth is an important point in estimating its value. The florets ought to be smooth, rounded, or somewhat pointed at the tip, of sufficient length to form a graceful curve, and be regularly arranged. A hollow center or prominent eye are serious defects, as also are a roughness in the blooms, unevenness of outline and a want of freshness in the outer florets.
The section is now subdivided into:
Sub-section (a) - Large-flowered varieties.
Sub-section (b) - Medium- and small-flowered varieties.
Fig. 944. New type with short stem, which is becoming very popular with commercial growers.
Japanese varieties include a wide range of form, size and color. Their florets may be either flat, fluted, quilled or tubulated, of varying length, from short, straight, spreading florets, to long, drooping, twisted or irregularly incurved. In breadth the florets may vary greatly, ranging from those an inch in width to others scarcely broader than a stout thread. Some also either have the tips of the florets cupped, hollowed, curved or reflexed.
Subsection I. Japanese, (a) Large-flowered varieties. (b) Medium-flowered varieties, (c) Small-flowered varieties. Sub - section II. Incurved Japanese.
(a) Large-flowered varieties. (b) Medium- and small-flowered. Sub-section III. Hairy Japa-'nese.
Reflexed section to be deleted as these varieties are now referred to other sections.