This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
The distinctive characteristics of anemone varieties are their high, neatly formed centers and regularly arranged ray-florets. There are two distinct sets of florets, one quilled and forming the center or disk, and the other flat and more or less horizontally arranged, forming the border or ray. The flowers may have the ray or guard florets broad or twisted, or narrow, and forming a fringe, but should be so regularly arranged as to form a circle round the center, the latter should be a hemispheroidal disk, with no trace of hollowness and every floret in its place.
(a) Large-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of 3 inches and upwards.
(6) Small-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of less than 3 inches.
Fig. 947. Japanese anemone type.
Fig. 945. Incurved type.
Fig. 948. Pompon anemone type.
Fig. 949. A pompon chrysanthemum. (X 1/3)
Pompon varieties have blooms that may be somewhat flat or nearly globular, very neat and compact, formed of short, flat, fluted or quilled florets, regularly spreading or erect, the florets of each bloom being of one character.
(a) Large-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of 2 inches and upwards.
(b) Small-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of less than 2 inches.
Single varieties may be of any size and form; but the florets, whether short and rigid or long and drooping, should be arranged sufficiently close together to form a regular fringe.
(a) Large-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of 3 inches and upwards. (b) Medium and small-flowered, i. - e., with a diameter of less than 3 inches. Sub-section II. Varieties with three to five rows of ray florets, (a) Large-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of 3 inches and upwards. (b) Medium and small-flowered, i. e., with a diameter of less than 3 inches. Sub-section III. Anemone-centered varieties.
Varieties in this section have small or medium-sized flowers of eccentric shape, but most frequently of a light and graceful character; some have threadlike florets, and some have broader florets, but they may be either erect, horizontal or drooping and of various shapes and colors.
Fig. 946. Japanese type.
Market, Decorative and Early-flowering varieties will be deleted as such, but lists will be drawn up under each heading for general guidance.
Culture of the florist's chrysanthemum (C. hortorum)
The first step towards success in chrysanthemum-culture is good healthy cuttings, and as they become established plants they should receive generous culture throughout their entire growing season. This requires close attention to watering, airing, repotting, and a liberal supply of nutriment.
Chrysanthemums are propagated in four ways,-by cuttings, division, seeds, and grafting. By far the most important is the first, because it is the most rapid. It is the method of the florists. In localities in which the plants can remain outdoors over winter without injury, they may be increased by division. This system is practised more by amateurs than florists, being the easiest method for the home garden but not rapid enough for the florist. Propagation by seeds is employed only to produce new varieties, and is discussed at length elsewhere (page 764). Grafting is seldom practised. Skilful gardeners sometimes graft a dozen or more varieties on a large plant, and the sight of many different colored flowers on the same plant is always interesting at exhibitions.
This account is intended to describe the method chiefly employed by florists, the plants being grown in benches under glass.
Plants of the preceding year afford stock from which to propagate the following season. They produce quantities of stools or suckers, which form excellent material for the cuttings. These are usually taken from 1 1/2 to 3 inches in length, the lower leaves removed, also the tips of the broad leaves, then placed in propagating-beds close together, where they are kept continually wet until rooted. To insure a large percentage, the condition of the cuttings should be moderately soft. If the stock plants are allowed to become excessively dry, the cuttings are likely to harden, and thus be very slow in producing roots. Single-eye cuttings may be used of new and scarce varieties when necessary. These are fastened to a tooth-pick with fine stemming wire, allowing half of the toothpick to extend below the end of the cutting, and when inserted in the cutting-bed the end of the cutting should rest upon the sand. It requires more time to produce good plants by this system than when fair-sized cuttings can be taken, but it is often of service when stock is limited. The propagatinghouse should be well aired, and it is advisable to change the sand after the second or third batch of cuttings has been removed, to avoid what is termed cutting-bench fungus.
The cuttings should never be allowed to wilt, and this is avoided by giving abundance of air, and when the temperature reaches over 70° from sun heat, by shading with some material, either cloth or paper. Fig. 951 shows a good form of chrysanthemum cutting.