This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Perennial, biennial or annual, branching and diffuse when in bloom, mostly with deep hard roots, milky juice and alternate leaves, and sessile axillary and terminal flower-heads: flowers several to many in the head, all ligulate and perfect, blue, purple or white; involucre double; pappus of bristle-like scales. - Mostly in the Mediterranean region and to Abyssinia.
Intybus, Linn. Chicory. Succory. Fig. 962. Stout deep-rooted tall perennial (3-6 ft.): leaves broadly oblong, oblanceolate or lanceolate, hairy, rapidly becoming very small toward top of plant so that the branches appear nearly naked and wand-like, more or less clasping and the lower ones runcinate: flowers bright azure-blue, 1 1/2 in. or more across, closing about noon; pappus about 8 times shorter than fruit July-Oct. - Now a widespread weed of hard roadsides and fields, but producing one of the clearest of light blues and worthy a place in the flower-garden. Recent experiments promise attractive color forms. For cult, for the root and for the salad lvs, see Chicory.
Fig. 962. Flowers of chicory. - Cicho-rium Intybus. (X 1/2). A familiar weed along roadsides in the eastern part of the country.
Endivia, Linn. Endive. Annual or biennial: leaves many at the base, oblong, lobed and cut, smooth: stem 2-4 ft., branching, grooved: flowers pale blue; pappus about 4 times shorter than fruit India; but by some thought to be a derivative of C. Intybus, or of C. divaricatum of the Medit. region. For cult, as a salad plant, see Endive. L, h. B.