This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Zither-wood: used for the making of certain musical instruments). Verbendceae. Shrubs or trees, sparingly planted in southern California, and perhaps elsewhere South for ornament.
Spiny or unarmed, tomentose or glabrous, with opposite entire serrate often spinose-dentate leaves: flowers white or sometimes yellow, odorous, small, in spici-form terminal or axillary racemes; calyx 5-toothed or -lobed; corolla-tube cylindrical, the limb broad and 5-lobed, the lobes spreading and obovate; stamens 5, included, one of them abortive, the 4 polliniferous ones didynamous; ovary more or less 4-celled, each cell 1-seeded; style often 2-lobed: fruit a fleshy drupe, partly inclosed in the calyx. - About 20 species, Mex. to S. Amer.
Linn. Tree, to 20 ft., the branches 4-angled and becoming cylindrical: leaves elliptic-oblong or lance-oblong, usually obtuse, glabrous or nearly so beneath: flowers white, in long lax and nodding spike-like racemes; calyx unequally lobed; corolla-tube twice as long as calyx: fruit nearly globular, red becoming black. W. Indies. L.D. 7:493.
Jacq. Larger tree, the branches permanently 4-angled: leaves elhptic-oblong: flowers white; calyx nearly truncate. W. Indies. - These two species are here defined as understood by Grisebach, as it is probable that the plants in cult, were determined on that basis. Schulz, however (Symbolae Antillanae), refers C. cinereum, Linn., to C. fruticosum, Linn.; and C. quadrangulare, Jacq., to C. spinosum, Linn. C. quadrangulare of Grisebach, at least in part, he refers to C. fruticosum; and C. cinereum, Jacq., to C. spinosum. What are the plants catalogued cannot be determined without a bringing together of material.
HBK. Low shrub, very branchy, not spiny, the branches 4-angled: leaves elliptic-oblong, narrowed into a short petiole, entire or spinose-dentate, thick, the margin revolute, shining above and punctate beneath: flowers white, in a short terminal raceme; calyx 5-toothed; corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx, the lobes pilose: drupe size of a pea. Ecuador.
Cham. Spiny shrub, the branches 4-angled: leaves obovate or elliptic-lanceolate, acute or obtuse or retuse, narrowed into a petiole, nearly entire, glabrous and shining above and paler and somewhat pilose beneath, bearded at the axils of the nerves: flowers white, in a terminal laxly-flowered raceme. Brazil, Uruguay.
L. H. B