This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Small trees, with slender twigs and pointed leaves, with very narrowly winged or merely margined petioles: flowers small, white; stamens 18-24: fruit with a loose peel and a hollow pith; seeds usually green inside. - This species comprises several well-marked groups; the original C. nobilis of Loureiro was undoubtedly something very like the King orange, a medium-sized tree with long upright branches, with dark bark, having large depressed globose fruit with a rough thick not very loose skin; segments usually 12-13; seeds rather numerous, large like those of a sweet orange, white inside. See W. A. Taylor, Yearb. Dept. Agric. 1907, pl. 34. This variety was found by Loureiro growing in Cochin China in the latter half of the l8th century and was introduced into Amer. by Mrs. S. R. Magee, of Riverside, Calif., in 1880, from Saigon, Cochin China, which introduction became known as the King orange. It has fruits of large size, very juicy, and of delicious vinous flavor. Its rough skin seems to be no obstacle to its ready sale at good prices.
A small tree, with slender branches, willow-like leaves, with merely margined petioles: flowers small: fruits depressed globose, bright orange-yellow or reddish orange, with a very loose peel; seeds small, beaked, bright green within. - This variety comprises the many varieties of Mandarin oranges, including the so-called tangerine varieties. These are delicious dessert fruits, attractive in appearance and easy to handle because of the loose skin and the easily separable segments Aside from the greater ease of preparing them for the table, Mandarin oranges are used exactly as are common oranges. The principal varieties grown in the U. S. are the following: Mandarin (China, China Mandarin, Willow-leaved). fruit medium-sized, 2-3 in. diam., depressed-globose, early, orange-yellow; very juicy; sweet; seeds abundant. Oneco. fruit medium to large, orange-yellow, midseason. Intro, from India in 1888. Tangerine (Dancy's Tangerine). fruit red-orange, medium size, depressed-globose, juicy; seeds rather abundant: midseason: tree of good size: leaves much broader than those of the Mandarin variety.
Other Mandarin oranges are occasionally grown, especially in Fla., such as the Beauty, Cleopatra, Kino Kumi, and Mikado. Hybrids: Tangelos, are a striking new group of citrous fruits Sampson, the first tangelo to be grown commercially, was obtained by the writer in 1897 by crossing the tangerine with Bo wen grapefruit; it is unlike either parent in quality, being more like a choice sprightly flavored sweet orange. Many other tangelos are now being tested. See Tangelo.
Satsuma or Unshiu Orange. A small spineless tree, with a spreading dwarf habit: leaves broad, abruptly narrowed toward the apex, with strongly marked veins on both faces: flowers small, very abundant: fruit depressed-globose, 2-3 1/4 in. diam., deep orange; pulp orange, very juicy, of a peculiar but agreeable flavor; pith hollow; segments 9-13; seeds often lacking, when present only few in number, broadly top-shaped, not beaked as in the Mandarin oranges, greenish within. - This very marked orange seems to constitute a botanical variety distinct from the King or the Mandarin oranges. It is commonly grown in Japan, whence it was introduced into Fla. by Geo. R. Hall in 1876, according to H. H. Hume, "Citrus Fruits and Their Culture." p. 112. 1909. The Satsuma orange is one of the hardiest of all edible citrous fruits Budded on the trifoliate orange, it can be grown in many parts of the Gulf Coast region, where all other citrous fruits except citranges are killed by cold. The Satsuma can be grown best on the trifoliate orange stock. It grows on sweet stock but does not produce as much nor as good fruit and is not so hardy. It makes only a stunted growth on sour orange stock and soon dies.
It cannot be grown satisfactorily on light sandy land or on black waxy lands with a marly subsoil where the trifoliate orange does not grow well. It could be grafted on Rusk citrange for the black waxy lime soils of Texas.
A small tree, with upright branches: leaves broadly oval, pale green below like those of_ kumquat; petiole narrowly winged: flowers small, angular in the bud, borne singly at the tips of the twigs: fruit small, depressed globose, deep orange-yellow when ripe, loose-skinned; segments 7-10, easily separable; pulp very acid; seeds few, small. - This tree, a native of the Philippine Isls., is commonly cult, in Hawaii, where it is wrongly called "China orange." It was introduced into Fla. by the U. S. Dept. of Agric. from Panama, and was for a time distributed by nurserymen under the erroneous name of To-Kum-quat. It is very hardy, probably as hardy as the Satsuma, or even more so. It can be budded on sour orange or on trifoliate orange stock. A promising fruit for home use, for culinary purposes and for making ade.
Fig. 978. A small tree, with long slender spines: leaves narrow, with oblong broadly winged petioles nearly or quite as large as the blade: flowers white; stamens 20, cohering in bundles: fruit lemon-shaped, 3-4 in. long, with a very broad low apical papilla surrounded by a shallow circular furrow; segments 8-11; pulp acid, of good flavor; seeds very large, thick, cuneate-ovate, 1/2- 3/4in. long and 1/4- 3/8in. thick, white within. - This interesting new species, not closely allied to any other of the known members of the genus Citrus, is native in highlands of S. W. China. It is the northermost evergreen tree of the citrous group and grows at high altitude, 3,000-5,000 ft. It is able to withstand considerable cold in winter, so it is very likely to prove of value in breeding new types of hardy substitutes for the lemon. E. H. Wilson, who collected excellent material of this plant for the Arnold Arboretum, is endeavoring to secure it for trial in U. S.
Fig. 978. Citrus ichangensis (X 2/5)
C. bergamia, Risso. Bergamot. A small tree: leaves oblong-oval, with long, winged petioles: flowers small, white, very fragrant: fruits pyriform, 3-4 in. diam., thin-skinned, pale yellow when ripe; pulp acid; seeds oblong, many. Extensively cult, in Calabria for the essential oil which is expressed from the peel and used in making Eau de Cologne and other perfumes. - C. histrix, see Papeda. - C. japonica, see Kumquat. - C. taitensis, Risso. Otaheite Orange. A dwarf plant, having lemon-like flowers and lemon-shaped fruit orange in color with a mawkish taste. Commonly grown by florists as an ornamental pot-plant. Rarely used as a stock for'dwarfing common citrous fruits This plant is not a native of Tahiti as the name would indicate, but is probably of hybrid origin. - C. trifoliata=Poncirus trifoliata.
Walter T. Swingle.