(after a Duchess of Northumberland and member of the Clive family). Syn., Imantophyllum. Amaryllidaceae. Tender bulbous plants with handsome evergreen foliage and showy, bright red or red and yellow flowers in large umbels.

Bulb imperfect, mostly of old If. - bases: perianth funnelform, curved or straight, the segments much longer than the tube; ovules 5-6 in each cell: fruit a berry, differing in this from the capsular fruit of Nerine. - Three species from S. Africa J. G. Baker, Amaryllideae, p. 61.

Clivias make excellent house plants, but, like amaryl-lis, are too costly to be very popular. They have the advantage over amaryllis of having attractive foliage all the year round, and are more certain to bloom well. They have thick, fleshy roots, like an agapanthus. All the species are well worth growing, because of their handsome umbels of flowers, produced during the spring and early summer months. Clivia miniata is the species most commonly grown. There are several distinct forms of this, with larger and deeper colored flowers. Established plants may be grown in the same pots for several years, if the plants are fed during the growing period with weak liquid manure. In potting, the soil given should be of a lasting nature, not easily soured, nor likely to become sodden. In arranging the drainage, place one large piece, concave side down, over the hole, and around this arrange several smaller pieces. Over these place one or two handfuls of pieces small enough to go through a No. 2 sieve. The best time to pot is after the flowers have been produced. The plants should then be kept for some time in a humid atmosphere to encourage growth, receiving an abundance of water after they are well started.

After growth has been completed, they will winter safely in an ordinary greenhouse temperature (not under 40°), if kept rather dry at the root. For propagation, choose old plants which have become crowded in their pots, so that the entire plant can be pulled to pieces. After trimming the roots, put the growths in small pots and keep in heat, to encourage root action. Clivias are well suited for planting permanently in the front part of greenhouse borders. The soil for this purpose should be rich and well firmed about the roots. Withhold water as much as possible during the resting period, or the plants will produce leaves at the expense of the flowers. (G. W. Oliver.) a. Flowers erect; perianth broadly funnel-shaped.

Miniata

Regel (Imantophyllum miniatum, Hook.). Fig. 1000. Leaves 16-20, in a tuft, sword-shaped, tapering to a point, 1 1/2 ft. long, 1 1/2_2 in. broad: flowers 12-20, in an umbel; perianth erect, bright scarlet, with a yellow throat; tube broadly funnel-shaped, longer than C. nobilis; segments about 2 in. long, the inner ones broader than the outer; stamens shorter than the segments; style not exserted: berries ovoid, bright red, 1 in. long. Natal. B.M. 4783. R.H. 1859, pp. 126-7; 1869:250, and 1894, p. 572. F.S. 9:949; 23:2373. I.H. 26:343; 36:80; 37:102; 40:177. - /. cyrtanthiflorum, Van Houtte (F.S. 18:1877), is a hybrid between this species and the next. It has a curved perianth, with the inner segments of the limb twice as broad as the outer; stamens longer than the corolla. R.H. 8:259 (desc). variety aurea, Hort. Flowers yellow with a deeper shade at base of the segments variety striata, Hort. Leaves freely variegated.

Clivia miniata.

Fig. 1000. Clivia miniata.

aa. Flowers pendulous; perianth narrowly funnel-shaped. nobilis, Lindl. (Imantophyllum Aitoni, Hook.). Leaves about 12, strap-shaped, very obtuse, with a roughish edge: flowers 40-60, in an umbel; perianth curved and drooping; tube narrowly funnel-shaped, shorter than in C. miniata; segments tipped with green, about 1 in. long; stamens as long as the segments; style exserted. Cape Colony. B.M. 2856. L.B.C.20:1906. Intro, to cultivated 1828. - I. cyrtanthiflorum, Van Houtte (F.S. 18:1877), said to be a hybrid between this and the above, shows little if any influence of C. miniata. It has the narrow-tubed, pendulous flowers and the greenish tinge of C. nobilis. R.H. 1894, p. 573.

C. Gardenii, Hook. Very much as in C. nobilis but with the corolla-lobes obviously spreading: stamens as long as the perianth-segments; anthers oblong, yellow. B.M. 4895. - A desirable plant. Wilhelm Mlller.

N. Taylor.† Clotbur, a weed: Xanthium.