This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
cc. leaflets rigid. D. Form of leaflets sword-shaped.
5. butyracea, Linn. stems very tall, naked: leaves pinnate; leaflets simple: spathe cylindrical-oblong, 4-6 ft.; spadix as long as the spathe, 4-6 ft.; branches of the spadix about 1 ft., thickly clustered and somewhat pendulous. Venezuela. - Rare and perhaps confused with Scheelea butyracea. Little known, although long ago described.
6. Romanzoffiana, Cham. stems 30-40 ft. high, somewhat fusiform above: leaves about half as long as the cau-dex, the withered ones deflexed, pendent, the upper spreading, often arching; segments conduplicate at the base, ensiform: spadix about 6 ft. long, at first inclosed in a stout pendulous spathe which appears among the lowest leaves S. Brazil near the sea; according to recent characterizations, it comprises a wide variety of forms, as explained under No. 2.
Fig. 1014. Coconut germinating.
Fig. 1015. Coconuts. cocos dd. Form of leaflets linear: apex obtuse: petiole glaucous.
7. australis, Mart. Pindo Palm. Height about 30 ft.: stem erect, columnar, equal, strongly annular above: leaves 9-12 ft. long, the sheath fibrous and glabrous; petiole naked; segments linear, glaucous, rather rigid: fruit as large as a pigeon's egg, outer pulp sweet, edible, seed oily. Paraguay. G.C. III. 18:739. A.F. 5:515; 7:805. R.H. 1876, p. 155. - A good grower. Cult, under glass and outdoors in Fla. and Calif.
8. nucifera, Linn. Coco Palm. Coconut Tree. Figs. 1014 (adapted from Cook), 1015. Caudex 40-100 ft. high, flexuous, thickened at the base: leaves 12-18 ft. long; leaflets linear-lanceolate, 2-3 ft., coriaceous, flaccid; petiole 3-5 ft., stout. Seashores within the tropics and at Miami and Palm Beach, Fla. Indigenous to Cocos or Keeling Isls. of the Indian Ocean, but recently thought to be native of tropical Amer. See O. F. Cook, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., 7:257-93 (1901); 14:271-342 (1910). R.H. 1895, p. 457. Mn. 2:171. G.F. 7:15 -Produces the coconuts of commerce. variety aurea, Hort., is a form remarkable for its orange-yellow sheaths, petioles and midribs." It is known in cult, only in England.
ddd. Form of leaflets narrowly lanceolate.
e. Leaves long, 6-15 ft. in mature specimens.
f. Petiole spinose-serrate: segments of If. less numerous.
9. Yatay, Mart. stem 12-15 ft. high, over 1 ft. diam., naked below, covered with dead sheaths above: leaves recurved, spreading 6-9 ft.; sheath 1 ft. long, fibrous at the mouth; petiole 1 1/2 ft. long, spinose-serrate, the spines increasing in length towards the lower end of petiole; segments 50-60 on a side, crowded below, then equidistant, linear-lanceolate, the uppermost long-setaceous filiform, the middle ones 2 1/2 ft. long, 2-5 in. wide, the upper 20 in. long, 1/4in\. wide, all rigid, glaucous beneath: spadix about 4 1/2 ft. long with at least 150 branches. Brazil, Argentina.
fp. Petiole not spinose-serrate: segments of If. very numerous.
10. Datil, Drude & Griseb. stem 30 ft. high, 8-12 in. diam.: leaves 12-15 ft. long; sheath about 16 in. long; petiole 1 1/2 ft. long, 1 2/3 in. wide, 2/3in. thick; segments linear-acuminate, glaucous, densely crowded in groups of 3 or 4, 150-160 on each side, the lowest 2 ft., middle 2 1/3 ft. and apical 1 ft., the uppermost filiform, all narrow, stiff and rigid, the dried leaves glaucous green or whitish: spadix 3-3 1/2 ft. long with at least 300 spirally twisted branches. Argentina; isls. and river banks. - The fruits are edible, resembling those of the date palm. Hardier in S. Calif, than C. plumosa, C. flexuosa, and C. Romanzoffiana.
11. coronata, Hort., not Mart. Trunk at length 18-30 ft. high, 8 in. diam., erect, deeply ringed: leaves erect-spreading, 6-9 ft. long, short-petioled, arranged in a close, 5-ranked spiral, the long-persistent bases of the petioles forming a spiral-twisted column below the crown; If. - segments in groups of 2 or 3, folded together from the base (conduplicate), linear-lanceolate, coriaceous, densely crowded, about 100 on each side; midrib 4-sided below, 3-sided above: spadix about 2 1/2-3 ft. with not more than 60 branches. Brazil.
ee. Leaves shorter, 3-4 1/2 ft- in mature specimens. f. Apex of leaflets obtuse.
12. campestris, Mart. stem 8-10 ft. high, thickened, scaly: leaves spreading-recurved, rigid, 3-4 1/2 ft. long; rachis elevated, triangular above, convex below; segments narrowly lanceolate, 30-40 on each side, obtuse at the apex and shortly cordate-acuminate: spadix about 2 1/2 ft. long, with 10-14 branches. Brazil. - Hardier than C. nucifera, but scarcely known in cult, in N. Amer. Perhaps hardy as far north as N. C.
ff. Apex of leaflets acuminate.
13. insignis, Mart. (Glaziova insignis, Hort.). stem 3-6 ft. high, 1 1/2 in. diam.: leaves 4 1/2-6 ft. long; sheath densely brown-lanate; petiole shorter than or equaling the sheath, a fourth or fifth as long as the rachis; segments equidistant, 50 on each side, narrowly lanceolate, obliquely acuminate and caudate, silvery glaucous beneath: spadix about 3 ft. long, with about 50 branches. Brazil.
The following are trade names of rare or botanically little-known plants not sufficiently described: C. Alphonsei. - C. Arechavalelina, Barb., is described as somewhat like C. Romanzoffiana but taller and making larger crowns. It is a native of Uruguay. - C. Blumen-avi=C eriospatha. - C. Bonnetii. - C. Gaertneri=(?). - C. Gerita, Hort. G.C. III. 27:293 figures C. Geriva, a remarkable Cocos (?) with 4 branches. Nothing further is known of this plant. It may be C. Geriba, Rodr.=C. botryophora, Mart. - C. Maximiliana, Hort.=(?). - C. odorata, Rodr. stem short: leaflets in 3's or 5's, linear-lanceolate; petioles spiny: fruit yellowish green or pink, pulp scented. Brazil. R.H. 1893, p. 345. - C. pulposa, is supposed to be very like C. eriospatha. This species is scarcely known in this country. -C. Yurumajnas=(?). N.Taylor.†