This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek, signifying bug-like, from the fruit). Including Calliopsis. Composite. Tickseed. Annual or perennial herbs, flowering in summer or autumn, nearly all natives of eastern North America, some of them popular as flower-garden subjects.
Leaves opposite or rarely alternate: heads pedunculate and radiate; the broad involucre with bracts of 2 distinct series, the outer narrower or shorter and more herbaceous, the inner broad triangular-ovate or oblong, thin, yellowish green or purplish, and striate; receptacle chaffy; rays very showy, yellow, particolored or rarely rose, neutral; disk-flowers yellow, dark or brown; pappus of 2 weak bristles or scales, or a low crown or none: achenes often winged. - The genus differs from Bidens only in the reduced or obsolete, not stiff-awned pappus, and If . - segments not serrate. Many of the species are in the trade under the name Calliopsis. Other genera with this peculiar involucre are Hidalgoa, Dahlia, Thelesperma, Cosmos, and Leptosyne. All the kinds are of easiest cultivation The perennials are hardy border plants. The annuals are raised in any garden soil, and bloom freely with little care. They are all showy plants, of 50-70 species.
A. Rays cuneate, lobed. B. Disk yellow; rays rose-purple.
Perennial: diffusely branched from slender, creeping rootstocks, 1-2 ft. high, smooth: Ivs. all narrowly linear, entire or with a few linear teeth or lobes: heads small, about 1 in. broad or less, short-peduncled; rays narrowly wedge-shaped, lobed at the apex: achene narrowly oblong, wingless; pappus an obscure border. Mass. to Ga.
bb. Disk and involucre dark purple; rays yellow or particolored, wedge-shaped and lobed.
c. Outer involucral bracts very short, lanceolate or triangular.
D. Leaves entire: achenes with lacerate wings and setiform pappus.
(C. dichotoma, Michx. C. lini-fdlia, Nutt.). Perennial: strict and tall, 1-3 ft. high, glabrous, sparsely branched at the summit: leaves entire, thickish; basal oblanceolate to narrowly spatulate, long-petioled; lower cauline elliptical on long petioles; upper narrowly spatulate or linear, sessile or reduced to bracts: heads 1-1 1/2 in. broad; rays entirely yellow. S. U. S.
dd. Leaves divided: achenes and pappus not as above.
Annual: low and diffusely much branched from the base, 6-24 in. high, glabrous: numerous basal and lower cauline leaves peti-oled, pinnatifid, divisions several pairs, short, oval, elliptical, rarely linear, often again divided; upper cauline nearly sessile with narrower and fewer divisions: heads as in No. 5, but smaller, and often entirely dark: achenes broader, winged; pappus minute or none. S. U. S. Gn. 29, p. 498; 37, p. 203.
4. Atkinsoniana, Douglas. Perennial or annual: stem tall, 2-4 ft. high: leaves pinnatifid, the divisions linear: heads as in the next: achenes with narrow wing or scarious margin; pappus composed of 2 short, subulate teeth. Autumn-flowering. S. W. U. S. B.R. 1376.
Fig. 1055. Coreopsis tinc-toria-Calliopsis elegans of gardens. ( X 1/2)
(C. bicolor, Reichb. C. elegans, Hort. Calliopsis marmorata, Hort.). Fig. 1055. Annual: stem tall, strict, 1-3 ft. high, branched, glabrous: basal leaves few or wanting; cauline petioled, the upper sessile, pinnatifid, divisions from narrowly elliptical to often again divided and narrowly linear: heads 3/4 - l½, rarely 2, in. broad; rays with dark purple base: achenes oblong, wingless; pappus none. Cent. U. S. B.M. 2512 B.R. 846. Mn. 1, p. 85. - A common garden annual; showy and good. Var nana, Hort. Dwarf, low and compact. Gn. 29, p. 499. Tom Thumb varieties. variety atropurpurea, Hook. (C. nigra, Hort.). Rays almost entirely dark. B.M. 3511.
cc. Outer involucral bracts narrowly linear, about equaling the inner.
(C. diversifolia, Hook. C. picta, Hort.). Golden Wave. Annual: stem branched above, 10-24 in. high: leaves petioled below, sessile above, pinnatifid, divisions few, short, broadly elliptical, those of the upper leaves linear: heads 1-2 in. broad, large; rays usually dark at the base: achene oval, wingless, margin cartilaginous incurved; pappus none. Texas. B.M. 3474. S.B.F.G. II. 4:315. Gn. 26, p. 461; 29, p. 498; 37, p. 203; 43, p. 397. G.M. 54:13. G. 16:58.
bbb. Disk yellow or brown; rays entirely yellow (except No. 7); peduncles long.
c. Style-branches acute or obtusish, not acuminate: dark lines at base of rays.
Annual: low and often weak, 12-24 in. high, much branched from the base, sparsely hirsute: leaves thick; the basal usually numerous, petioled, pinnatifid or entire, divisions elliptic, rather obtuse, lateral divisions smaller; the cauline leaves few, spatulate, often entire: heads 1 1/2 - 2 in. broad; rays with a few dark lines above the orange base; outer involucre a third to a half shorter than the inner: achene orbicular, broadly winged, often echinate, with a thickened callus at base and apex on inner face; pappus very minute. Texas. B.M. 3460. S.H. 1:270. Gn. 26, p. 461; 29, p. 499.
cc. Style-branches cuspidate-acuminate: rays entirely yellow.
(C. auriculata, Schkuhr & Hort., not Linn.). Perennial: tall, 1-4 ft. high, branched above, pubescent or nearly glabrous, leafy throughout: leaves thickish, oval to lanceolate, very acute, petioled or nearly sessile, entire or with small, acute, lateral lobes; basal few: heads 1 1/2 - 2 1/2 in. broad; outer involucre nearly as long as the inner: achenes and pappus similar to those of the next species. S. U. S. Gn. 37, p. 202.
Fig. 1056. Perennial: low, 1-2 ft. high, sparingly branched, glabrous or nearly so, leafy toward base: leaves few, large, oblong-spatulate to linear, petioled, barely acute, upper entire, lower usually pinnatifid, divisions very distant: heads 1 1/2
Fig. 1056. Coreopsis lanceolata. (X 1/2)
2 1/2 in. broad; peduncles very long; outer involucre equaling the inner or one-half shorter: achenes orbicular, papillose, broadly winged; pappus of minute scales or obsolete. E. U. S. Gn. 25, p. 165; 33, p, 7; 37, p. 203. G.W. 10, p. 22. V. 18:102. - Used extensively for cut-flowers
Variety glabella, Michx, (variety angustifolia, Torr. & Gray). Low: stems scapiform: leaves narrow and crowded at base of stem, 2-4 lines wide.
Variety villosa, Michx. (C. oblongifolia, Nutt.). Leaves spatulate-obovate to oblong, villous, as is also the stem, with jointed hairs.
(C. longipes, Hook. C. Boy-kiniana, Nutt.). Perennial; simple or branched, glabrous, 1-2 ft. high, leafy throughout: basal leaves few, lower leaves spatulate or lanceolate, entire, upper divided into several linear entire divisions: heads 1-2 1/2in broad: achene orbicular, papillose, broadly winged; pappus of 2 small scales. S. U. S. B.M. 3586. Gn. 47:7; 62, p. 338. Mn. 5:201. G. 29:461. J.H. III. 57: 479. Gn. W. 23:349; 26:113.
aa. Rays elliptical, entire or toothed at apex. b. Color of rays pale yellow: leaves petioled.
Perennial; very large and stout, 4-8 ft. high, branched above, glabrous: leaves petioled, 8 in. or less long, trifoliate, or rarely irregularly 5-7-foliate, divisions lanceolate: heads medium, rays pale, disk-flowers yellow or dark purple: achene oblong, narrowly winged; pappus a fimbriate border. Cent. U. S.
bb. Color of rays deep yellow: leaves sessile. c. Los. 3-cleft to below middle; base entire, 3-ribbed.
(C. praecox, Fresen.). Perennial; tall and stout, 1 1/2-3 ft. high, sparingly branched at the summit: leaves thick, cuneate, 2 1/2 in. long, divisions broadly linear, often irregularly again divided: heads 1 1/2-2 1/2 in. broad: achenes oblong, narrowly winged; pappus minute or obsolete. Cent. U.S. R.H. 1845:265.
cc. Leaves divided to the base. D. The leaves 3-divided, divisions entire, 1/2-l in. broad.
(C. senifolia, Michx.). .Perennial; tall and stout, 2-3 ft. high, pubescent, much branched above: basal leaves wanting, lower cauline small, upper 2-3 in. long, palmately 3-divided, divisions equal, lanceolate, acute: heads 1 1/4 - 2 in. broad; rays deep yellow; disk-flowers yellow: achenes obovate-elliptical, winged, summit 2-toothed. S. E. U. S.
Variety Oemleri, Brit. Smooth: If . - divisions more attenuate at the base. B.M. 3484 (as C. senifolia).
Variety linearis, Small. Smooth: If . - divisions narrow, 2-4 lines wide.
dd. The leaves dissected, divisions 1/3 - 3 lines wide.
Perennial;glabrous, branched above, 1-3 ft. high: leaves sessile, 2-3 in. long, basal wanting, ternately divided, divisions dissected into linear-filiform segments, which are 1-3 lines wide: head 1-2 1/2 in. broad; disk dark: achene oblong-obovate, narrowly winged; pappus-teeth short. S. E. U. S.
(C. tenuifolia, Ehrh.). Perennial; sparingly branched, 1-3 ft. high: basal leaves wanting; cauline, sessile, similar to the last but segments only 1/3 - 2/3 lines wide: heads 1-2 in. broad; disk yellow: achenes oblong-obovate, narrowly winged; pappus nearly obsolete. E. U. S.
C. aristosa, Michx., C. aurea. Ait., and C. trichosperma, Michx., are now placed under Bidens (which see). - C. atropurpurea, Hort. =Thelesperma sp. - C. auriculata, Linn. (C. diversifolia, DC). Perennial: low, stoloniferous, hirsute: leaves petioled, short, oval, mostly entire: heads large, very long-peduncled: probably not in the trade. S. U. S. - C. bella, Hutchins. Undershrub about 3 ft. high. British E. Africa - A very handsome species. - C. Grantii, Oliv. A compact bushy plant about 2 ft. high. Flowers in the winter. tropical Afr .B.M. 8110. G.C. III. 39:162. Gn. 69, p. 161. - C. Leavenworthii, Torr. &Gray. Annual: If. - divisions linear-spatulate: rays cuneate, lobed, yellow; awns 2, slender: achene winged. Fla. - C. nudata, Nutt. Perennial, rush-like: leaves mostly basal, long, filiform: rays rose-colored: wing of achene pectinate. S. U. S. -C. radiata, Hort. Plant very dwarf: flower-heads with ray-florets rolled up. Of garden origin. K.M. Wlegand.
Coriander is the seed-like fruit of Coriandrum sativum, Linn., an umbelliferous annual of southern Europe. The plant grows 1 to 3 feet high, glabrous, strong-smelling, with leaves divided into almost threadlike divisions, and small white flowers. The plant is easily grown in garden soil. It occasionally becomes spontaneous about old yards. The seeds (fruits) are used as seasoning and flavoring in pastries, confections and liquors, although they are less known in this country than caraway. The plant is sometimes grown in American gardens with sweet herbs and other things.