This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(cotoneum, quince, and aster, similar: the leaves of some species resemble those of the quince). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Shrubs, rarely small trees, chiefly grown for their ornamental red or black fruits and some species also for their foliage which turns brilliant colors in autumn.
Leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, short-petioled, entire, stipulate: flowers solitary or in cymes, terminal, on short lateral branchlets, white or pinkish; petals 5; stamens about 20: fruit a black or red pomaceous drupe, with 2-5 stones. - About 40 species, in the temperate regions of Eu. and Asia, also in N. Africa, but none in Japan.
Cotoneasters are ornamental shrubs, many of them with decorative fruits remaining usually through the whole winter, while only a few, like the hardy C. hupehensis and C. multiflora and the tender C. frigida, and also C. racemiflora and C. salicifolia, are conspicuous with abundant white flowers. Of the species with decorative red fruits, C. tomentosa, C. racemiflora and C. integerrima are quite hardy, and C. Simonsii, C. acuminata, C. rotundifolia, C. microphylla and others are hardy at least as far north as New York, while C. frigida and its allies are the most tender. The foliage of some of the species assumes brilliant colors in autumn; dark crimson in C. Simonsii, C. horizontalis, C. divaricata and C. Dielsiana; scarlet and orange in C. foveolata, bright yellow in C. Zabelii. The half-evergreen C. horizontalis and C. adpressa, and the evergreen C. Dammeri and C. microphylla, with its allied species, are well adapted for rockeries on account of their low, spreading or prostrate habit. Cotoneasters thrive in any good, well-drained garden soil, but dislike very moist and shady positions.
Propagation is effected by seeds, sown in fall or stratified; the evergreen species grow readily from cuttings of half-ripened wood in August under glass; increased also by layers, put down in fall, or by grafting on C. vulgaris, hawthorn, mountain ash or quince.
A. Petals upright, small, usually pinkish; cymes usually few-flowered or nodding, if many-flowered (Orthopetalum.) b. fruit red.
c. Under side of leaves glabrous or only pubescent.
d. Habit prostrate.
(C. horizontalis variety adpressa, Schneid.). Prostrate shrub, with creeping and often rooting stems irregularly branched: leaves oval, acutish, wavy at the margin, nearly glabrous, 1/3-1/2in. long: flowers 1-2, pinkish: fruit subglobose, usually with 2 stones. June: fruit Aug., Sept. W. China. V.F. 116. - Hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.
Fig. 1080. Low shrub: branches almost horizontal and densely distichously branched: leaves round-oval, acute at both ends, glabrous above, sparingly setosely hairy beneath, 1/3-2/3in. long: flowers erect, 1-2, pink: fruit ovoid, bright red, usually with 3 stones, smaller than in the preceding species. June; fruit Sept., Oct. China. R.H. 1885, p. 136; 1889:348, fig. 1. G.C. III. 32:91. Gn. 66, p. 407. variety perpusilla,
Fig. 1080. Cotoneaster horizontals.
Schneid. Leaves less than 1/3in long: fruit 1/4in. across. - Like the preceding species, one of the most effective fruiting shrubs for rockeries.
dd. Habit upright. e. Leaves small, not exceeding 1 in., nearly glabrous beneath.
Shrub, with spreading branches, to 4 ft.: leaves roundish oval, acute, glabrous above, 1/2-1 in. long, semi-persistent: cymes 2-5-flowered; flowers white, slightly pinkish; calyx appressed-pubescent: fruit bright red, usually with 3-4 stones. June, July. Himalayas. Refug. Bot. 1:55. B.M. 8010 (excl. flowers; as C. rotundifolia). One of the best red-fruiting species, often under the name C. Simondsii or C. Symonsi.
Upright shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves deciduous, oval or broadly oval, acute or obtusish, broadly cuneate at the base, lustrous above, 1/3 - 3/4 in. long: flowers usually 3, pink; calyx appressedpubescent: fruit ovoid, nearly sessile, bright red, 1/3in. long, usually with 2 stones. June; fruit Sept. Cent. and W. China. - Very handsome when studded with its bright red fruits; hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.
ee. Leaves larger, 1 1/2-3 in. long, deciduous.
Erect shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves oblong to ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate, appressed-hairyonboth sides, dull above to light green beneath: cymes 2-5-flowered, nodding; flowers white or slightly pinkish; calyx pubescent: fruit deep scarlet, turbinate, with 2-3 stones. June; fruit Sept., Oct. Himalayas. L.B.C. 10:919 (as Mespilus). R.H. 1889:348, fig. 5 (as C. nepalensis).
Spreading shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves ovate, acuminate, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, rugose and finally nearly glabrous above, reticulate, pale grayish green and pubescent beneath: flowers pinkish, few; calyx glabrous: fruit red, subglobose, with 4-5 stones. May, June; fruit Sept., Oct. W. China. V.F. 119. variety floribunda, Rehd. & Wdson (C. moupi-nensis floribunda, Stapf). Cymes many-flowered; calyx slightly pubescent. B.M. 8284. variety macrophylla, Rehd. & Wilson. Leaves elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, narrowed at the base, often nearly glabrous, 2-6 in. long: cymes many-flowered - The varieties are much handsomer than the type.
cc. Under side of leaves whitish or grayish tomentose: young branchlets densely pubescent.
d. Leaves 3/4-2 1/2 in. long, rounded at base.
Shrub, to 4 ft.: leaves ovate or oval, acute or obtuse and mucronulate, glabrous and dark green above, whitish and at length greenish tomentose beneath, 3/4 -2 in. long: cymes nodding, 2-4-flowered; flowers pale pinkish; calyx glabrous outside: fruit globular, bright red. May, June; fruit Aug. Eu., W. Asia, Siberia. H.W. 3, p. 73, figs. a-i.