(old Greek substantive). Cruciferae. Herbs or sub-shrubs, one grown in the vegetable-garden, and one or two in the hardy herbary.

Annuals, biennials or perennials, with thickened stems, and more or less fleshy leaves, glaucous: leaves mostly large, more or less cut, lyrate or pinnatifid: flowers small, white, fragrant, in panicled racemes: fruit 2-jointed, indehis-cent, the lower joint stem - like and seedless, the upper one globular and 1-seeded. - About 20 species in Eu., Asia, and 1 in Patagonia. Of easy cultivation.


Stev. Excellent foliage plant, withstanding the winters in the northern states: leaves very large and heavy, cordate and ovate, toothed, glabrous or nearly so: flowers small but very numerous, in great branchy panicles 5-7 ft. high and nearly as broad, overtopping the mass of root-leaves Caucasus. Gn. 50, p. 349. Gng. 4:291. - For the first 2 years from seed the plant makes only leaves; but the third year it may be expected to bloom, after which the plant usually becomes weak and dies.


Linn. Sea-Kale. Perennial, smooth, stout, to 2 ft.: leaves large, heavy and cut, more or less fringed or curled, glaucous green: flowers many, white, broad, honey-scented, in a tall panicle, in May. Coasts of Eu. - Grown as a garden vegetable. See Sea-kale.

C. juncea, Bieb. Biennial: small species with white flowers in an attractively slender-branched panicle. Iberia.;-C. Kotschyana, Boiss. Perennial: leaves somewhat hairy, the radical ones cordate-ovate with rounded dentate lobes, the stem - leaves few, ovate-oblong.Iobed. W. Asia. - C. tatarica, Jacq. Perennial, said to be grown in Hungary as "Tartarian bread." Glaucous, more or less rough-hairy: radical leaves decompound, with linear segments Hungary, E. L H B