This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Tree, to 20 ft., with rather slender spreading or ascending branches forming a symmetrical head: spines straight or slightly curved, l 1/2-2 in. long: leaves broadly ovate, broadly cuneate or truncate at the base, coarsely and often doubly serrate, above the middle with 4-5 pairs of short acute lobes, at maturity membranous, dark green and scabrous above, paler and nearly glabrous below, 2-4 in. long: flowers 1/2in. across in loose slightly villous corymbs; calyx-lobes coarsely glandular-serrate: fruit pear-shaped or ovoid, bright scarlet, lustrous, with conspicuous persistent calyx; flesh thin, mealy; stones 4-5. May; fruit Sept. Pa. to Conn., N. Y., and Ont. S.S. 13:677.
(C. macrosperma variety pastorum, Eggleston). Glabrous shrub, sometimes to 15 ft., with many erect stems, armed with numerous stout or slender spines: leaves ovate, acute, usually rounded at the base, doubly serrate, slightly lobed, at maturity thick, dark dull blue-green, glaucescent below, 1 1/2-2 in. long: flowers 3/4in. across in many-flowered corymbs; calyx-lobes lanceolate, entire or obscurely serrate: fruit ovoid, bright scarlet, lustrous, about 1/2in. long, with thick, yellow and mealy flesh and 2-3 stones. New England. May; fruit Sept. S.S. 4:180 (as C. coccinea).
(C. coccinea variety rotundifolia, Sarg. C. glandulosa, Willd.) Shrub or bushy tree, sometimes to 20 ft., with slender, straight or curved spines: leaves ovate-orbicular to oval, or obovate, acute, broadly cuneate at the base, rather coarsely serrate and usually with 3-4 pairs of short acute lobes, glabrous, 1-2 1/2 in. long: corymbs glabrous or slightly villous; flowers 3/4-l in. across; calyx-lobes and bractlets very glandular: fruit subglobose, about 1/2in. long, red with yellow sweet flesh and 2-3 stones. May; fruit Sept. Nova Scotia to Sask., III. and Va. G.C. II. 14:557. Gn. 22, p. 145; 33, p. 464. - The most northern species. variety pubera, Sarg. (C. coccinea, Linn., in part). Branchlets, petioles and the leaves on the veins more or less pubescent below while young.
Shrub, to 10 ft.: branches upright or spreading, with rather long curved spines: leaves elliptic-ovate, acute, cuneate at the base, doubly serrate with 3-4 pairs of short acute lobes, at first slightly pubescent, later scabrate above, bright green, slightly paler beneath and nearly glabrous, 1-2 1/2 in. long: corymbs slightly villous; flowers about 1 in. across; calyx-lobes serrate: fruit subglobose to ovoid, sparingly villous or glabrous, dull reddish brown, with usually 3-4 stones. May; fruit Oct., Nov. Mass. and Vt. to Pa. Lange 1.
Large shrub or tree, often to 25 ft., with stout spreading or ascending branches and stout straight spines 1/2in. long: leaves broadly ovate or oval, acute, usually rounded at the base, coarsely serrate and incisely lobed with acuminate lobes, glabrous and thick and firm at maturity: corymbs 3-7-flowered, compact, glabrous; flowers 3/4in. across; sepals serrate toward the apex and stipitate-glandular: fruit subglobose, usually angled, about 1/2in. across, yellowish green and flushed red or red, with 3-5 stones. May; fruit Sept. and Oct. Va. to N. C. and Tenn. S.M. 464.
Tree, occasionally to 20 ft., with stout ascending branches: spines straight, thin, 1 1/2-2 in. long: leaves broadly ovate to oval, acute, sharply serrate with glandular teeth and often with 2-3 pairs of short acute lobes, bronzy red when unfolding and slightly viscid, at maturity yellowish green, thick and firm and glabrous, 1-2 1/2 in. long; petioles glandular: flowers 3/4in. across, in 4-10-flowered glabrous corymbs; calyx-lobes entire or obscurely glandular-serrate above the middle: fruit depressed-globose, yellowish green flushed with red, about 1/2in across, with 3-5 stones. May; fruit Oct. Va. to Ky., Tenn, and Ala. S.S. 13:650.
(C. arborescens, Ell.). Tree, to 35 ft., with spreading branches forming a round, rather compact head: spines slender: leaves oblong-ovate to oval, acute or acuminate, serrate above the cuneate base, dark green and lustrous above, paler below, finally glabrous, 1-3 in. long: corymbs glabrous; pedicels slender; calyx-lobes lanceolate, entire: fruit globose, bright red, 1/6-1/4 in. across, with usually 5 stones. Md., Va. to 111., Iowa, Texas and Fla. May; fruit Oct., persisting through the winter. S.S. 4:187.
Tree, to 30 ft., with spreading branches unarmed or with thin straight spines: leaves elliptic to oblong-obovate, acuminate, coarsely serrate except at the cuneate base, often slightly lobed, dark green and lustrous above, paler below, glabrous, 1-3 in. long: corymbs glabrous, calyx-lobes elongated, entire or sparingly glandular-serrate: fruit ovoid or subglobose, dark dull red, about 1/2in. long with thick mealy flesh and 2-5 stones. May; fruit Oct., persistent through the winter. 111., Kans. S.S. 13:703. - Like C. viridis very ornamental with its lustrous foliage and persistent fruits
Cockspur Thorn. Shrub or tree, to 40 ft.: branches wide-spreading, rigid, often pendulous, with numerous slender spines: leaves obovate or oblanceolate, irregularly and sharply serrate, usually rounded at the apex, quite glabrous, 1-2 1/2 in. long, often semi-persistent: corymbs glabrous; calyx-lobes entire or minutely serrate: fruit usually globose, red, with usually 2 stones; flesh thin and dry. May, June: fruit late in Oct. Que., south to N. C, west to Mich. S.S. 4:178. Em. 492. R.B. 1:116. G.F. 7:295. G.C. III. 28:244, suppl. Sept. 29. - A very decorative species of distinct habit, handsome in bloom and with showy, bright red fruit, remaining on the branches often until spring; the leaves assume a brilliant orange and scarlet color in fall. Often used for hedges. variety iner-mis, Lange. Spineless form. variety linearis, Ser. Leaves linear-lanceolate. variety nana, Nichols. Dwarf form. variety pyracanthifolia, Ait. Leaves elliptic or obovate, usually acute: fruit smaller, brighter red.
W. N. Y. and Pa. to Fla. and Tenn. S.S. 13:637. variety salicifolia, Ait. Leaves oblanceolate or lanceolate, thinner. variety splen-dens, Ait. (variety lucida, Hort.). Leaves elliptic-oblanceo-late, very shining. variety ovalifolia, Lindl. (C. pennsyl-vdnica, Hort., not Ashe). Leaves elliptic or elliptic-obo-vate, less lustrous: fruit ovoid. B.R. 22:1860. Gn. 22, p. 146; 33, p. 468. - This is probably not a variety of C. Crus-galli, but a distinct species identical with one of the recently described species of this group.