This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(C. sanguined variety Douglasii, Torr. & Gray). Tree, to 40 ft., with slender, often pendulous branches, unarmed or with short spines: leaves short-petioled, broadly ovate or oblong-ovate, acute, gradually narrowed at the base, serrate and slightly lobed, nearly glabrous, pubescent on the midrib above, chartaceous, 1-4 in. long: corymbs glabrous; flowers 1/3-1/2 in. across; stamens 20; calyx-lobes triangular-ovate, usually glandular-serrate above the middle: fruit ovoid, 1/2in. long, black and lustrous, with sweet, light yellow flesh and 3-5 nutlets. May; fruit Aug., Sept. Brit. Col. and N. Calif, to Wyo. S.S. 4:175. B.R. 21:1810.
Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft., with upright, spreading branches and short spines: leaves ovate or broadly ovate, narrowed into the petiole, irregularly serrate and slightly lobed, more deeply lobed on vigorous shoots, at first hairy above and often also below, at maturity glabrous or nearly glabrous, 1 1/2 - 3 in. long: corymbs pubescent or glabrous; flowers large; stamens 20, with purple anthers: fruit 1/2 in. diam. May; fruit in Aug., Sept. E. Siberia. variety chlorocarpa, Schneid. (variety xanthocarpa, Regel). fruit yellow, smaller: anthers whitish.
(C. purpurea, Bosc. C. sanguinea variety altaica. Loud.). Shrub or small tree: spines to 1 1/2, in. long: leaves ovate or broadly elliptic-ovate, acute, broadly cuneate at the base, sharply serrate, those of the flowering branches very slightly or scarcely lobed, those of the shoots distinctly and acutely lobed, glabrous, 3/4-2 in. long: corymbs glabrous; flowers 1/2in. across: fruit subglobose, 1/3in. across, orange-red. April, May; fruit Aug. E. Siberia. - The earliest leafing species of all hawthorns; very graceful; hardy.
(C. cordata, Ait. C. acerifolia, Moench. C. populifolia, Walt.). Washington Thorn. Tree, to 30 ft., with slender spines: leaves slender, petioled, triangular or broadly ovate, usually truncate at the base, 3-5-lobed, sharply serrate, 1 1/2- 2 1/2in. long: corymbs many-fid., glabrous; styles 5: fruit depressed-globose, 1/4in. across, shining, bright coral-red; calyx deciduous, leaving a circular scar; stones 3-5. May, June; fruit Sept., Oct. Va. to Ala. and Mo. S.S. 4:186. B.R. 14:1151. F.E. 28, p. 103 (habit). - A very desirable species, with beautiful fall-coloring and large clusters of bright red fruit remaining a long time on the branches. Formerly much used for hedges.
(C. Marshallii, Eggleston). Shrub or small tree, rarely 20 ft., with stout spines and the branchlets pubescent when young: leaves slender-petioled, broadly ovate, pinnately 5-7-cleft, serrate, glabrous or pubescent, 3/4 - l 1/2, in- long: corymbs few-fid., villous; styles 1-3: fruit ovoid, 1/4in. high, scarlet, with 1-3 stones; calyx often deciduous. April, May; fruit Oct. Va. to Fla., Ark. and Texas. S.S. 4:188. - A handsome species with graceful foliage and an abundance of white flowers in spring and small but bright-colored fruits in fall.
Tree, to 50 ft., with stout spreading branches, armed with numerous short usually curved spines, 1/3- 2/3in. long: leaves obovate-oblong, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or sometimes obtuse, cuneate at the base, crenulate-serrate, rarely slightly lobed, glabrous at maturity, lustrous above, 3/4 - 2 in. long: corymbs many-flowered, glabrous; flowers 1/3-in. across, turning orange in fading; stamens 15-20: fruit subglobose, 1/3- 1/12in. across, bright blue and bloomy, with 3-5 stones. April, May; fruit Aug. La. and Texas. S.S. 4:177. - The only species with blue fruit; hardy only S.
Shrub or small tree: branches pubescent or tomentose, with short spines: leaves short-petioled, ovate or ovate-elliptic, deeply pinnately 5-9-lobed with serrate lobes, slightly pubescent above, densely pubescent beneath, 2-3 in. long: corymbs dense, 10-15-flowered, tomentose; pedicels short; flowers white, becoming slightly red; anthers yellowish: fruit subglobose, 1/2in. across, black, lustrous, juicy, with 5 stones. May; fruit in Aug. S.E. Eu. L.B.C. 11: 1021. L.I. 30.
Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft.: young branchlets pubescent, with short spines: leaves ovate to obovate, irregularly and usually sparingly serrate, pinnately 3-7-lobed, hairy above while young, finally nearly glabrous above, pubescent below, 1-2 in. long: corymbs villous; flowers 1/2in. across, anthers red: fruit ovoid or obovoid, purplish black, 1/2in. long, with 4-5 stones. May; fruit Sept., Oct. S. E. Eu., Caucasus. B.R. 22: 1874; 23:1933 (as C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana). R.H. 1901, p. 310.
Hawthorn or May of English literature. Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft., with spreading glabrous branches and stout spines: leaves short-petioled, cuneate or truncate at the base, roundish or broadly ovate, 3-5-lobed, with broad, serrulate lobes, 1-2 in. long: corymbs 5-10-flowered, glabrous: fruit globular or roundish oval, 1/3- 1/2in. high, scarlet; stones 2, with 2 furrows on the inner side. May. Eu., N. Africa B.R. 13:1128 (as C. oxyacanthoides). variety bicolor, Rehd. (C. Oxyacantha variety Gumpperi bicolor, Hort. C. Oxyacantha rubra, Schneid.). Flowers white in the center, edged red. F.S. 16:1651. variety Paulii, Rehd. (var, coccinea, Hort. variety Paul's New Double Scarlet. C. Oxyacantha variety splendens, Schneid.). Fig. 1103. With SS7 double, bright scarlet flowers; one of the most showy. I.H. 14:536. F. 1867:117. variety aurea, Loud. (C. Oxyacantha variety xanthocarpa, Lange). With yellow fruit variety quercifolia, Loud. Leaves with broad, rounded and cre-nate lobes. - Most of the garden forms usually listed as varieties of C. Oxyacantha belong to the following species.
Even the varieties enumerated above are by some botanists not considered true C. Oxyacantha, but referred to C. media, Bechst., a hybrid between this and the following species; the existence of hybrid forms makes the distinction between the two species still more difficultivation.
Fig. 1103. Paul's thorn-Crataegus Oxyacantha variety Paulii. (X 1/3)